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INTRODUCTION .. .. .. vi 

TEA IN ENGLAND .. .. .. .. i 


THE TEA DUTY . . . . . . . . . . 49 

HINTS ON TEA MAKING .. .. .. . . 52 

TEA STATISTICS .. .. .. .. 57 

Imports of Tea into England 1610-1841 . . . . 57 

Tea Statistics for the Fifty Years 1842-1891 . .. 60 

CHINA TEA . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 

Cultivation and Manufacture . . . . . . 67 

Monings . . . . . . . . . . 75 

Kaisows . . . . . . . . . . 79 

New Makes .. .. ' .. .. ..83 

Oolongs and Scented Teas . . . . . . 86 

Green Teas . . . . . . 90 

INDIAN TEA .. .. .. .. .. 95 

Tea in India . . . . . . . . 95 

Cultivation and Manufacture . . . . . . 99 

Indian Tea Districts .. .. .. 

CEYLON TEA .. .. .. .. .. 120 

JAPAN AND JAVA TEAS, ETC. .. .. ..126 

TEA BLENDING .. .. .. .. .. 131 

SPECIMEN BLENDS .. .. .. . . 143 



THE present volume is intended to give all 
those engaged in the Tea Trade, who wish to 
take an intelligent interest in it, a sketch of 
its growth and development in this country 
and a comprehensive review of its present 
scope and position ; to bring together a mass 
of hitherto inaccessible facts and details of 
practical importance to the Trade, and to 
give such instructions, hints and advice, on 
the subject of blending, as shall enable every 
reader to attain with facility a degree of 
proficiency in the art which previously could 
only be arrived at by a course of long and 
often costly experience. 

No pains have been spared in the 
collection of materials, the best authorities 
having been consulted with regard to all 
matters on which the author cannot speak 
from personal experience, and all information 
is brought down to the latest moment. 

The review of the great variety of kinds of 
Tea reaching our market from China, India, 
Ceylon, Japan and Java, and their reduction 
to harmonious blends being the work of a 
practical man, will be found a valuable 
assistance to every blender, and we trust our 
readers, on making a practical test of the 
soundness of our counsel, will find it result 
in great and lasting benefit to their trade. 

LONDON, 1894. 


ffif?HE earliest mention of tea, outside the literature 


?A of China, is found in the writings of an Arabian 
merchant named Soliman, who, in an account of his 
travels in the East more than a thousand years ago, 
mentions it as the usual beverage of the Chinese. 
With the exception of a more or less doubtful reference 
in Marco Paolo's " Marvels in the World," published 
in the thirteenth century, nearly seven hundred 
years elapsed before it was again heard of in 
Western literature ; Jesuit missionaries, having in 
the sixteenth century penetrated far into the East r 
brought back information, which was published by 
Giovanni Botero, an Italian author, in 1590, to the 
effect that u the Chinese possess a herb out of 
which they press a delicate juice which serves them 
as a drink instead of wine ; it also preserves the health, 


and frees them from all those evils which the im- 
moderate use of wine produces amongst us." Shortly 
afterwards Father Recci, one- of the before-mentioned 
Jesuit missionaries, published his " Letters on China," 
giving a further account of its nature and properties. 
Vague and incorrect as the information was, it had 
the effect of stimulating inquiry ; and as trade and 
adventure brought the Western nations into contact 
with the Chinese at various points, small consignments 
of tea gradually found their way into the hands of 
European merchants. The strange new commodity 
at once attracted considerable attention and specula- 
tion ; an attempt was made in " Hints on certain 
plants, imperfectly known to modern botanists," 
published in 1612, to show that China was known 
to the Romans, and that at their feasts they drank 
tea from costly vases. 

In the year 1605 the Dutch East India Company, 
taking advantage of the public curiosity concerning 
this strange drink of the East, instructed their 
agents in Yeddo and Macao to obtain a supply, 
and it is said that one of their agents, with perhaps 
more shrewdness than honesty, impressed on the 
Chinese and Japanese that Europe also possessed 
herbs of wondrous virtue, and induced them to part 

with tea in exchange for equal weights of dried sage 
and borage, a profitable stroke of business which 
was commented on as follows by Father Rodes, who 
wrote in 1653: "In France the knowledge of tea 
was introduced by the Dutch, who sold at Paris at 
25/- per Ib. tea which had cost them in exchange 
:some 2d. or 2-|d. in China." 

The new drink, however, made but slow progress 
amongst the Western nations at first, and the references 
to tea in European writings before 1650 are few, and 
show that its qualities were not by any means generally 
known or appreciated. In 1633, Olearius, a German 
writer, describes tea as a strange drink in use 
amongst the Persians, who obtained it from the Chinese 
by means of the Usbeck Tartars, and described it as "a 
black water with an acrid taste." In 1639 the Russian 
Ambassador at the Court of the Mogul declined to 
accept a present of tea for his master, the Czar, stating 
*' it would only be encumbering him with a commodity 
for which he had no use." In 1641 the author of a 
u Treatise on Warm Beer," writing to recommend hot 
in preference to cold drinks, refers to tea only by 
quoting the statement of the Jesuit Maffei, that " they 
(the Chinese) do for the most part drink the strained 
liquor of an herb called ' Chia ' hot." Continental 

doctors differed widely as to its merits and demerits. 
A Leyden physician, Botenkoe, hailed it as an infallible 
remedy for almost all diseases, stating that "if men 
could be prevailed upon to drink enough of it" his 
idea of "enough" appears to have been two hundred 
cups daily " the innumerable ills to which mankind is 
subject would not only be much diminished, but would 
entirely disappear." Dr. Waldsmeck, Professor of 
Physic at Marpurg, with equal enthusiasm, calls it " the 
defence against the Enemies of Health the universal 
panacea which has so long been searched for ; it is 
impossible for the obstructions of Hypochondria and 
the distempers which proceed therefrom, to withstand 
the virtues of this healthful Herb," and concludes in 
the raptured exclamation, " Oh, admirable virtue of 
tea ! Oh, precious treasure of life ! " And Morisset 
in his "Apology for Tea" (1648), hails it as "The 
drink beloved by the gods." 

Other continental writers, on the contrary, bitterly 
denounced it. In Holland, in 1641, Paul Simon pub- 
lished a treatise against both tea and tobacco ; and 
Fagon, the physician of Louis XIV., declared that 
amongst other ill effects the use of tea blackened the 
teeth and caused them to drop out. For more than 
a hundred years the controversy raged all over the 

Continent; between 1650 and 1700 more than seventy 
special treatises appeared on one side or the other. 

The date of actual introduction of tea into this 
country cannot be ascertained with absolute certainty, 
some authorities giving the date as 1591, others as 
1597, and others again as 1610, which last appears 
most likely to be correct; the price at first was ten 
guineas per pound, arid naturally it was only used by 
the upper ten, and by them only on great occasions. 

By the middle of the seventeenth century, however, 
it was getting into more general use. An advertisement 
in the " Gazette" of 1658 calls attention to the fact 
that " that excellent and by all physicians approved 
Chinese drink called by the Chinese Toha, and by 
other nations Tay, alias TEE, is sold at the Sultaness 
Head Cophee House, in Sweeting's Rents, by the Royal 
Exchange, London," and in 1660, Samuel Pepys entered 
in his diary the oft-quoted sentence, " I did send for a 
cup of tea (China drink), of which I had never drank 
hefore " he does not, however, inform us how he 
liked it. Seven years afterwards it appears to have 
found its way into his house, and he writes, under date 
June 1 8th, 1667, "Home and found my wife making of 
tea, a drink which Mr. Felling, the 'pothecary, tells her 
is good for her cold and defluxions." 

About this date tea began to be imported into 
England from Holland in somewhat larger quantities,, 
the price falling rapidly to 6o/- per Ib. ; and by the close 
of the Commonwealth period it had become quite a 
popular drink, a result, doubtless, brought about in 
great measure by the vigorous advertising of one 
Thomas Garway, or Garaway, a " tobacconist and 
seller and retailer of tea and coffee," as he somewhat 
cumbrously describes himself, who, in 1659, published a 
striking handbill, dated from " Exchange Alley, hard 
by the Royal Exchange," and headed " An Exact 
Description of the Growth, Quality and Virtues of the 
Leaf Tea," which, amongst other curious statements 
informs its readers that u tea is generally brought from 
China, and groweth there upon little shrubs and 
bushes ; the branches whereof are well garnished with 
white flowers that are yellow within, of the likeness- 
and fashion of sweet-briar, but in smell unlike ; bearing 
thin green leaves about the bigness of scordium, myrtle r , 
or sumack, and is judged to be a kind of sumack. 
This plant hath been reported to grow wild only, but 
doth not ; for they plant it in the gardens, about four 
foot distance, and it groweth about four foot high ; 
and of the seeds they maintain and increase their stock. 
Of this leaf there are divers sorts (though all one. 

shape) ; some much better than others, the upper leaves 
excelling the others in fineness a property almost in all 
plants ; which leaves they gather every day, and drying 
them in the shade or in iron pans, over a gentle fire, till 
the humidity be exhausted, then put close up in leaden 
pots, preserve them for their drink-tea, which is used 
at meals and upon all visits and entertainments in 
private families, and in the palaces of grandees ; and 
it is averred by a padre of Macao, native of Japan, 
that the best tea ought to be gathered but by virgins 
who are destined for this work. The particular virtues 
are these : it maketh the body active and lusty ; it 
helpeth the headache, giddiness and heaviness thereof; 
it removeth the obstructiveness of the spleen ; it is very 
good against the stone and gravel ; being drank with 
virgin honey instead of sugar, it taketh away the 
difficulty of breathing, opening obstructions ; it is good 
against tipitude, distillations, and cleareth the sight ; 
it removeth lassitude and cleanseth and purifieth acrid 
humours and a hot liver ; it is good against crudities, 
strengthening the weakness of the ventricle, or stomach, 
causing good appetite and digestion, and particularly 
for men of corpulent body, and such as are great eaters 
of flesh ; it vanquisheth heavy dreams, easeth the 
frame and strengtheneth the memory ; it overcometh 

superfluous sleep and prevents sleepiness in general : a 
draught of the infusion being taken so that, without 
trouble, whole nights may be spent in study without 
hurt to the body." 

In addition to this remarkable panegyric, he issued 
the following practical and interesting handbill : 

" Tea in England hath been sold in the leaf for b 
and sometimes 10 the pound weight, and in respect 
of its former scarceness and dearness it hath been only 
used as a Regalia in high Treatments and Entertain- 
ments, and presents thereof made to Princes and 
Grandees, till the year 1657. 

" The said Garway did purchase a quantity thereof, 
and first publicly sold the said Tea in leaf and drink, 
made according to the directions of the most knowing 
Merchants in those Eastern Countries. 

u On the knowledge of the said Garway's continued 
care and industry in obtaining the best tea, and 
making drink thereof, very many noblemen, physicians, 
merchants &c., have ever since sent to him for the 
said leaf, and daily resort to his house to drink the 
drink thereof. 

"He sells tea from i6/- to 5o/- a pound," prices 
which by comparison with those previously current 
must be considered as very moderate. 

The Sultaness Head and Garway's lead was speedily 
followed by other coffee houses, and in u Rugge's Diurnal," 
in 1659, it is noted that "coffee, chocolate, and a kind 
of drink called Tee was sold in almost every street." 

At the same time as Garway and his fellow coffee- 
house keepers were thus bringing the new drink promi- 
nently before the City merchants, its use was becoming 
fashionable in the Court. In 1662 Charles II. married 
Catherine of Portugal, who had enjoyed the drink in 
her own country, and who, we may presume, had some 
share in popularising it here ; at any rate we learn 
that in 1666 Lords Ossory and Arlington obtained a 
consignment of fine quality from Holland, then the 
headquarters of the trade in Europe, and distributed 
it amongst persons of rank, by whom it was greatly 

In 1686 the widow of the unfortunate Duke of 
Monmouth made a present of a pound of the new 
luxury to some of her relations in Scotland, but this 
being its first introduction to that country, and as no 
directions for its use accompanied the gift, the tea was 
boiled, and after carefully straining the leaves, they 
were served as a vegetable, the result being probably 
sufficiently unsatisfactory to give the partakers but a 
poor opinion of the tastes of their friends at the English 


Meanwhile the coffee-house of our friend Gar way r 
on account of its proximity to the Royal Exchange,, 
and doubtless also on account of the excellent quality 
of the tea he supplied, became famous, and remained 
for two centuries a great resort of the leading citizens 
and merchants. Tea, as we have seen, was also on 
sale at the various other coffee-houses which were 
opened in London and elsewhere about this time, and 
which for a century and a-half were to play such an 
important part in the social history of the nation,, 
answering as they did the double purpose of the clubs 
and exchanges of the present day, and doubtless 
they had much to do with popularising the new 

Disraeli the elder, in his " Curiosities of Literature," 
informs us that, soon after their establishment, these 
coffee-houses appear to have fallen under the disappro- 
bation of the authorities, and in the year 1675 they 
were all closed by Royal Proclamation. 

Roger North, in his " Examen," has given a full 
account of this bold stroke. It was, it seems, not done 
without some show of respect to the British Constitu- 
tion, the Court affecting not to act against law ; for 
the judges were summoned to a consultation, when it 
appears the five who met did not agree in opinion ; 


but a decision was contrived " that the retailing of Tea 
and Coffee might be an innocent trade, but as it was 
said to nourish sedition, spread lies, and scandalize great 
men, it might also be a common nuisance." A general 
discontent arose in consequence, and emboldened the 
merchants and retailers of tea and coffee to petition,, 
and permission was soon granted to open the houses 
for a certain period, under a severe admonition that the 
masters should prevent all scandalous papers, books,, 
and libels from being read in them, and hinder every 
person from spreading scandalous reports against the 
Government. It must be confessed that all this must 
have frequently puzzled the coffee-house keeper to 
decide what was scandalous, what book was fit to be 
licensed to be read, and what political intelligence- 
might be permitted to be communicated. The object 
of the authorities, however, was probably to intimidate 
rather than persecute at that moment. 

In the literature of the period we find allusions to 
tea become increasingly frequent. In 1668 Sir Charles 
Sedley, in the play of " The Mulberry Garden," lays 
it down that " he who would be considered a man of 
fashion always drank wine and water at dinner, and a 
dish of tea afterwards." Congreve, the dramatist, in 
his play, "The Double Dealer" (1694), makes one of 


the characters state that "the ladies have retired to 
tea and scandal." Edmund Waller, the poet, in a 
birthday ode to the Queen Catherine before referred to, 
calls tea " the best of herbs " and " the Muses' friend," 
and asserts that it does 

" Repress those vapours which the head invade, 
And keeps that palace of the soul serene." 

And Pope afterwards, in his " Rape of the Lock " 
(1711), addresses another Queen (Anne), when at 
Hampton Court, as follows 

" Here, thou great Anna ! whom three realms obey, 
Dost sometimes counsel take and sometimes tea ; " 

from which it seems, we may infer, that the then 
fashionable pronunciation of the word was " Tay " ; 
and in the same poem makes his heroine, Belinda, 
protest that, rather than lose her favourite curl, she 
would be 

" In some isle 

Where the gilt chariot never marks the way, 
Where none learn ombre, none e'er drink Bohea." 

Allusions to tea are frequent in the "Spectator" 
papers, and amongst the many interesting glimpses of 
the social life of the period which they afford us, we 
see the fashionable young lady taking her morning and 

evening " dish of tea," " the infusion of a China plant 
sweetened with the pith of an Indian cane " ; and 
a tea-table is the latest fashionable addition to the 
furniture of her boudoir, around which assemble her 
acquaintance to discuss the issue of the " Spectator ' y 
of the day, and to circulate the latest gossip and 
scandal which, in its turn, will be duly communicated 
to Mr. " Spectator " by his fair correspondents. Sugar r 
as we find by numerous allusions, was always taken,, 
and "Bohea," " Peco," and " Green Imperial" are 
mentioned as the kinds most in favour, green tea 
having been first imported in 1715. Significant 
allusions to the smashing of the tea-dishes as a frequent 
accompaniment to family jars are to be found. 

Mr. " Spectator " also introduces us to his friend 
" Mr. Peter Motteux " an industrious man of trade, 
formerly a brother of the quill who describes his 
shop as " in Leadenhall Street, near the India Com- 
pany, and in the centre of that trade, and known for 
choice and cheapness of China and Japan wares, teas, 
fans, muslins, pictures, arrack, and other Indian goods," 
He had dedicated a poem on tea to the " Spectator," 
which is thus commented on : "It would injure him, as 
a man of business, if I did not let the world know that 
the author of so good verses wrote them before he was 


concerned in traffic. In order to expiate my negligence 
towards him I paid him a visit. I found his spacious 
warehouses filled and adorned with tea, China and 
India ware. I could observe a beautiful ordinance of 
the whole, and such different and considerable branches 
of trade carried on in the same house I exulted in 
seeing disposed by a poetical head." 

One other tea dealer, a lady, appears in these 
papers, signing herself " Rebecca, the Distressed." 
She is " one of the top China women about town," 
and complains bitterly of the idle young ladies of 
fashion who plague her twice or thrice a day " to 
cheapen tea or buy a skreen." " One calls for a set of 
tea-dishes, another a basin, a third for my best green 
tea," and so disorganise her whole shop, although they 
seldom or never buy anything. 

In the paper of June I9th, 1712, the writer states : 
"" I know a person who possesses the sense of taste in 
:so great a perfection that, after having tasted ten 
-different kinds of tea, he would distinguish, without 
seeing the colour of it, the particular sort which was 
offered him ; and not only so, but any two sorts of 
them that were mixed together in equal proportion. 
Nay, he has carried the experiment so far as, upon 
tasting the composition of three different sorts, to name 

the parcels from whence the three several ingredients 
were taken." We may assume that the gentleman in 
question was only an amateur, as in those days tea- 
tasting had scarcely taken rank as a profession ; had 
he been born a hundred and fifty years later, he would 
have been able to turn his talent to profitable account. 

We also have several sketches of the fashionable 
young man of the period sipping his tea in the coffee- 
houses, giving himself airs, and ogling 'the " idols," as 
the barmaids of that day were termed. 

In 1728 Dr. Short writes of tea as follows : 

" The use of tea has so singularly prevailed in 
England, for these forty or fifty years past, among all 
persons (except of the very lowest rank), and has been 
so taking with the fair sex, that 'twere a shame our 
examination and undertaking should not bear some 
proportion to the use and preference we have made 
-of it. 

" Whoever well considers what a superior figure this 
humble shrub makes in commerce, what an important 
article 'tis in the traffic of the East India Companies, 
what a great revenue the duty upon this little crumbled 
leaf returns to the Crown of England, whereby the 
general taxes are so much lessened to the poor ; whoever 
further observes, after all this, the trade it variously 


advances, the equipage, and all its concomitants ; and,, 
lastly, the Societies it assembles, there being more than 
three thousand houses of reception for them in London, 
as a certain author computes, where this liquor is daily 
drunk ; whoever would remark the business, conversa- 
tion and intelligence it there promotes, as also the 
expense and debauchery it prevents, will readily con- 
clude with me, that this, as well as other things r 
demands our observance and regard, not according to 
the simple appearance it makes, but the consequences 
which flow from it." 

Other sketches of fashionable life in the reign of 
Queen Anne show us the high-born dames of that 
period flocking to the fashionable tea-houses in the 
Strand, and sipping the beverage from oriental china 
cups of infantile size. 

Favoured by fashion and recommended by the 
physicians, the consumption of tea increased rapidly, 
and the taste for it spread to all classes, but its pro- 
gress was not to be unopposed, and in the early part 
of the eighteenth century it encountered numerous 
bitter attacks. As we have already seen, certain conti- 
nental doctors had given opinions hostile to it ; and in 
1722 a pamphlet was written by a certain John Lacy, 
addressed to the ladies of England, denouncing tea as 

a slow but sure poison, and comparing it with opium, 
and tracing to its use almost all the ills that flesh is 
heir to. Soon afterwards the Methodists took up the 
crusade against tea. " After talking to both the men 
and women leaders," writes John Wesley, " we agreed 
it would prevent great expense, as well of health as of 
time and money, if the poorer people of our Society 
could be persuaded to leave off drinking of tea," and he 
proceeds to denounce it as the cause of dire physical 
spiritual ills, and exhorting his followers to " abhor it 
as a deadly poison, and to renounce it from this very 
hour." Edward Young, author of " Night Thoughts," 
calls tea " a fatal stream, dreadful to the love of fame " 
whatever that may mean. It was not, however, 
without eloquent advocates, one of whom replied to 
these and similar attacks as follows : u The progress 
of this famous plant has been something like the pro- 
gress of truth, suspected at first, though very palatable 
to those who had courage to taste it, resisted as it 
encroached, abused as its popularity seemed to spread, 
and establishing its triumph at last in cheering the 
whole land, from the palace to the cottage, only by the 
slow but resistless efforts of time and its own virtues." 

On the other hand, a certain Jonas Hanway, who 
is credited with being the first person to carry an 



umbrella in the streets of London, published, in 1756, 
an elaborate essay against tea-drinking, denouncing it as 
pernicious to health, obstructing industry, and bringing 
ruin on the nation and on everyone who indulged in 
its use. " Women," he writes, " lose their beauty from 
tea-drinking, and languish with weak digestions and 
low spirits, while men lose their stature and comeliness. 
I am not young, but, methinks, there is not so much 
beauty in this land as there was. Your very chamber- 
maids have lost their bloom, I suppose, by sipping tea. 
What Shakespeare ascribes to the concealment of love 
is in this age more frequently occasioned by the use of 
tea.' 1 Aroused by this attack upon his favourite 
beverage, Dr. Johnson nobly entered the lists in its 
defence, and easily succeeded in refuting the argu- 
ments of its detractors, and in covering them with 
ridicule. Boswell's account of the Doctor's controversy 
with Hanway being as follows : " His (Dr. Johnson's) 
defence of tea against Mr. John Hanway's violent 
attack upon that elegant and popular beverage, shows 
how well a man of genius can write upon the slightest 
subject when he writes, as the Italians say, con amore. 
I suppose no person ever enjoyed with more relish the 
infusion of that fragrant leaf than Johnson. The 
quantities which he drank of it at all hours were so great 

that his nerves must have been uncommonly strong not 
to have been extremely relaxed by such an intemperate 
use of it. He assured me that he never felt the least 
inconvenience from it, which is a proof that the fault of 
his constitution was rather a too great tension of fibres 
than the contrary. Mr. Hanway wrote an angry 
answer to Johnson's review of his * Essay on Tea,' and 
Johnson, after a full and deliberate pause, made a reply 
to it ; the only instance, I believe, in the whole course 
of his life when he condescended to oppose anything 
that was written against him. I suppose, when he 
thought of any of his little antagonists, he was 
ever justly aware of the high sentiments of Ajax in 
the ' Ovid ' 

' Iste tulit pretium jam nunc certaminis hujus, 
Qui cum victus erit mecum certase feretur ; ' 

rendered by Dryden 

' Losing he wins, because his name will be 
Ennobled by defeat, who durst contend with me.' 

But, indeed, the good Mr. Hanway laid himself so 
open to ridicule that Johnson's animadversions upon 
his attack were chiefly to make sport.'' 

In his reply Johnson describes himself as a 
* l hardened and shameless tea-drinker, whose kettle 
has scarcely time to cool, who with tea amuses the 


evening, with tea solaces the midnight, and with tea 
welcomes the morning." The worthy Doctor, however, 
appeared to have been prepared to make considerable 
concessions to the enemy. " I readily admit," he says, 
" that tea is a liquor not proper for the lower classes of 
the people, as it supplies no strength to labour or relief 
to disease, but gratifies the taste without nourishing 
the body." And then, being confronted with the fact 
that in England no less than ^300,000 was spent annually 
in this article of superfluous luxury, he does not hesitate 
to say that its importation ought to be stopped by a 
penal law. This must, however, be taken as merely a 
" pious opinion," and we know it had no effect on his 
own continued use of the beverage ; Mrs. Thrale telling 
us that she would often sit up until four o'clock in the 
morning making tea for him in his Gargantuan teapot, 
which history records held two quarts. Garrick, the 
famous actor, who was a townsman and a friend of the 
Doctor, was also a drinker of tea, but from motives of 
economy preferred it weak ; and it is on record that 
on one occasion Peg Woffington incurred his severe 
displeasure for making it too strong, or, as he phrased 
it, " as red as blood." At this period it appears to have 
been generally made very weak, if we may judge from 
a passage in Dr. Johnson's " Essay on Tea " above re- 


ferred to. u Three cups," he says, " make the common 
quantity so slightly impregnated that, perhaps they 
might be tinged with the Athenian cicuta, and produce 
less effects than these letters (Hanway's) charge upon 
tea." It appears, however, that Hanway would have 
had the support of Dr. Johnson's father, had he been 
living, for as his son writes, " he considered tea as 
very expensive, and discouraged my mother from 
keeping company with the neighbours, and from 
paying visits or receiving them." 

Before the close of the Doctor's life he was destined 
to see tea play an important part in changing the destiny 
of a large part of the world. On the i/ June, 1767, 
the British Parliament passed the memorable Act 
imposing heavy duties on tea, paper, painted glass, &c., 
imported into America. These imposts were stoutly 
resisted by the colonists, who in retaliation refused 
either to buy or use tea, and matters soon assumed a 
threatening aspect. The other duties were withdrawn, 
but King George III. determined that not only should 
the tea duty be maintained, but that tea should be forced 
upon the stubborn colonists. Accordingly, in December, 
1773, English ships, bearing three hundred and forty 
chests of tea, arrived at Boston ; but the opponents of 
the obnoxious taxation were fully as determined as the 


King, and a band of them, disguised as Indians, boarded 
the vessels on their arrival, emptied the chests over- 
board, and " Boston harbour was black with unex- 
pected tea." 

A hundred years afterwards Emerson commemo- 
rated the event in a poem, read in the Faneuil Hall on 
December 16, 1873, from which we take the following. 

stanzas : 

11 Bad news from George on the English throne ; 

' You are thriving well,' said he ; 
Now by these presents be it known 

You shall pay a tax on tea ; 
'Tis very small, no load at all, 
Honour enough that we send the call. 

" ' Not so,' said Boston, ' good, my lord, 

We pay your governors here 
Abundant for their bed and board, 

Six thousand pounds a year. 

(Your Highness knows our homely words) 
Millions for self-government, 
But for tribute never a cent.' " 

The cargo came ! and who could blame 

If Indians seized the tea, 
And, chest by chest, let down the same 

Into the laughing sea ? 
For what avail the plough or sail, 
If land, or life, or freedom fail." 

This defiant act was the prelude of the American 
War of Independence. 

Meanwhile, in England, tea was steadily growing in 
favour. Horace Walpole, writing in 1743, says, "they 
have talked of a new duty on tea, to be paid by every 

housekeeper for all the persons in their families, but 
it will scarce be proposed. Tea is so universal that 
it would make a greater clamour than a duty on 
wine." About the same date an Italian visitor,, 
writing on English customs, finds tea so popular in 
fashionable life that " even the maid-servants must 
have their tea twice a day in all the parade of quality : 
they make it their bargain at first " ; and, considering 
the price of tea at the time, we are not surprised at 
the comment that " this very article amounts to as 
much as the wages of such servants in Italy." After- 
noon teas must have also become fashionable about 
this period ; for, in describing the mode of living in 
Harrogate in 1763, Dr. Alexander Carlyle says, in 
his Autobiography, " The ladies gave afternoon's tea 
and coffee in turn, which, coming but once in four 
or six weeks, amounted to a trifle." 

At the close of the eighteenth century we find 
another poet singing the praise of tea as follows 
the quotation is from Cowper's " Task," written 

in 1785 : 

" Now stir the fire and close the shutters fast, 
Let fall the curtains, wheel the sofa round ; 
And while the bubbling and loud hissing urn 
Throws up a steamy column, and the cups 
That cheer but not inebriate wait on each, 
So let us welcome peaceful evening in." 

In 1718 Mrs. Montagu adopted the fashion intro- 
duced from France by the Duke of Dorset, of giving 
teas at the assemblies of the " Blue Stocking Club," 
which were held at her mansion in Portman Square. 
These meetings were commemorated by Cowper in the 
following couplet : 

" There genius, learning, fancy, wit, 
Their ruffled plumage calm refit." 

Soon after, Hartley Coleridge, then a very young 
man, wrote the following lines in praise of tea : 

" Though all unknown to Greek and Roman song, 
The paler Hyson and the dark Souchong, 
Though black, nor green, the warbled praises share 
Of knightly troubadour or gay trouvere ; 
Yet deem not thou, an alien quite to numbers, 
That friend to prattle, and that foe to slumbers, 
Which Kian-Long, imperial poet, praised 
So high that cent, per cent, its price was raised ; 
Which Pope himself would sometimes condescend 
To plead commodious at a couplet's end ; 
Which the sweet bard of Olney did not spurn, 
Who loved the music of the ' hissing urn,' 
Let her who bade me write exact the muse, 
Inspire my genius and my tea infuse, 
So shall my verse the hovering sylphs delight, 
And critic gnomes relinquish half their spite. 
Clear, warm, and flowing is my liquid theme, 
As sweet as sugar and as smooth as cream." 

Hazlitt, who commenced his career as an author 
early in the present century, seems to have been, if 
possible, a greater tea-drinker than even Dr. Johnson. 
We are told that he never touched any but black tea, 
and was very particular about the quality of that, 
always using the most expensive that could be obtained ; 
and he used, when living alone, to consume nearly a 
pound a week. A cup of Hazlitt's tea, if you happened 
to come in for the first brewage of it, was a peculiar 
thing. He always made it himself, half filling the 
teapot with tea, pouring boiling water on it, and then 
almost immediately pouring it out, using with it a great 
quantity of sugar and cream. 

In 1821 De Quincy writes of it, in his " Confessions 
of an English Opium Eater," enthusiastically, as 
follows : 

" Surely everybody is aware of the divine pleasures 
which attend a winter fireside : candles at four o'clock, 
warm hearth-rugs, tea, a fair tea-maker, shutters closed, 
curtains flowing in ample draperies on the floor, whilst 
the wind and rain are raging audibly without. Happi- 
ness, in my judgment, enters the room with the tea- 
tray ; for tea though ridiculed by those who are 
naturally of coarse nerves, or are become so from 
wine-drinking, and not susceptible of influence from 


so refined a stimulant will always be the favourite- 
beverage of the intellectual ; and for my part I would 
have joined Dr. Johnson in a bellum mternecmm against 
Jonas Hanway or any other impious person who should 
presume to disparage it. * * * But here r 

to save myself the trouble of a verbal description r 
I will introduce a painter, and give him directions for 
the rest of the picture. Paint me, then, a room seven- 
teen feet by twelve, and not more than seven and 
a-half feet high, and near the fire paint me a tea-table 
and (as it is clear that no creature can come to see 
one such a stormy night) place only two cups arid 
saucers on the tea-tray ; and, if you know how to paint 
such a thing symbolically or otherwise, paint me 
an eternal tea-pot eternal a parte ante and a par te post 
for I usually drink tea from eight o'clock at night to 
four o'clock in the morning. And, as it is very 
unpleasant to make tea or pour it out for oneself^ 
paint me a lovely young woman sitting at the table 
paint her arms like Aurora's and her smiles like 

Nor was it only amongst literary men and the 
fashionable world that tea was during this time increas- 
ing its popularity. What the coffee-houses were doing 
in this direction for the merchant and man-about -town 

was being done for the tradesmen and working-man by 
the " tea gardens," which were opened in what were 
then pleasant rural retreats within easy distance of 

About 1836 a strong impetus was given to the 
consumption by the great temperance movement which 
was inaugurated about that time, in the propaganda 
of which movement, and also later on in connection 
with the Corn Law League, tea-meetings on a gigantic 
scale were held. These meetings backed by the 
earnest efforts of the temperance reformers to make 
tea the national drink and a substitute for alcoholic 
liquors had an immense effect in increasing its use, 
especially amongst the working classes. In the course 
of a few years the imports had risen to 40,000,000- 
pounds per annum, and the tea trade had become 
established as an important item of the commerce of 
this country. 

Dr. Sigismund, in " Tea : its effects medicinal and 
moral," published in 1839, writes : 

" A curious and not uninstructive work might be 
written upon the singular benefits which have accrued 
to this country from the preference we have given to- 
the beverage obtained from the tea-plant, above all 
those that might be derived from the rich treasures of 


the vegetable kingdom. It would prove that our 
national importance has been intimately connected 
with it, and that much of our present greatness and 
even the happiness of our social system springs from 
this unsuspected source. It would show us that our 
mighty empire in the East, that our maritime supe- 
riority, and that our progressive advancement in the 
arts and sciences, have materially depended upon 
it. Great indeed are the blessings which have been 
diffused amongst immense masses of mankind by the 
cultivation of a shrub whose delicate leaf, passing 
through a variety of hands, forms an incentive to 
industry, contributes to health, to national riches, and 
to domestic happiness. The social tea-table is like the 
fireside of our country a national delight ; and if it be 
the scene of domestic converse and agreeable relaxation, 
it should likewise bid us remember that everything 
connected with the growth and preparation of this 
favourite herb should awaken a higher feeling that 
of admiration, love, and gratitude to Him, who * saw 
everything that He had made, and behold it was very 
good.' " 

The value of tea as a beverage being now more 
generally recognised, its invigorating and sustaining 
properties began to be appreciated by the workers of 

2 9 

the world. In the Army and Navy the use of tea 
slowly but surely to a great extent supplanted the 
use of grog. Admiral Inglefield states that sailors 
under him in the Arctic regions, after one day's 
experience of rum-drinking, came to the conclusion 
that tea was much preferable, and they derived much 
advantage from its use while undergoing hard work 
and considerable cold. Lord Wolseley is of the same 
opinion. " Once, during my military career," he says, 
" it fell to my lot to lead a brigade through a desert 
country for a distance of over six hundred miles. I 
fed the men as well as I could, but no one, officer or 
private, had anything stronger than tea to drink during 
the expedition. The men had peculiarly hard work to 
do, and they did it well and without a murmur." In 
his recent Egyptian campaign he carried out the same 
plan, and the troops who captured Tel-el-Kebir drank 
nothing but tea, which was served out to them three 
times a day. 

We have seen how much some of the leading 
literary men of the last century were indebted to 
tea, and how enthusiastic were their praises of it ; 
to enumerate the celebrated men of more recent times 
who have placed their appreciation of it on record 
would be to trench too much upon our available space, 

for their name is legion ; but the curious will find much 
information on the point in Mr. A. Reade's interesting 
little book on " Tea," and also in his book on " Study 
and Stimulants." 

The prediction that tea is to be the national 
beverage of England seems rapidly fulfilling itself; 
the consumption here is still increasing " by leaps 
and bounds." Fifty years ago 40,000,000 pounds 
per annum fully supplied all requirements : to-day 
200,000,000 pounds are barely sufficient for home 
consumption alone. Fifty years ago the consumption 
of tea was little over one pound per head of the 
population : to-day it is about five pounds per head. 
Our countrymen who have left our shores to seek new 
homes beyond the seas have carried with them their 
taste for tea, and large quantities are annually taken 
by Australia, Canada and our other Colonies. 

Vast and rapid as has been the increase in the 
demand, the supply has fully kept pace with it. 
Our Indian Empire, although it has only been 
a tea-growing country about thirty years, sends us 
over 100,000,000 pounds annually, or more than 
half of our total requirements, and India itself has 
now to face in Ceylon a competitor which, although 
young, has already proved a most dangerous rival ; 

and experimental plantings are being made by our 
countrymen in Fiji and Natal, by Italians in Sicily, 
by Russians in the Caucasus, and by Americans in 

Thus we have traced the history of the consumption 
of tea from its inception, with the tentative introduction 
of the strange Chinese beverage as a curiosity two 
hundred and seventy years ago, to its colossal proportions 
at the present day, when, by every class of our population, 
from prince to pauper, it is drunk once or twice a-day ; 
and the enormous debt humanity owes to this precious 
herb is acknowledged on all hands. Great indeed 
would be the blank in English social life were we 
deprived of tea. The brain-worker would find the 
strain of sustained thought still more intolerable in the 
noisy world of to-day ; the man of business would find 
it still more difficult to maintain the high pressure of 
modern commerce ; the soldier and sailor and labourer 
would be deprived of the best and safest of stimulants ; 
the athlete of one of the few comforts left to him by 
the strict rules of training ; the watcher by the sick 
bed would find her task doubly heavy ; the weary 
seamstress would find the strain of poverty harder to 
endure ; and the lady of fashion would sadly miss her 
five o'clock teas which have of late played so important 

and refreshing a part in the whirl of the fashionable 
day ; and last, but not least, Her Majesty's Customs 
would lose a solid revenue of four millions sterling 
per annum. 



S the tea trade in England was for more than 
a century and a-half a monopoly in the hands 
of the East India Company, we may briefly sketch 
the rise of that institution. 

About the beginning of the i6th century the 
exclusive right of trading with the East was secured 
to the Portuguese by a Papal Bull, but it passed into 
the hands of the Spaniards when they conquered 
Portugal in 1580 ; soon afterwards, during the struggle 
between England and Spain, which led to the destruc- 
tion of the Spanish navy, the Spanish East Indiamen 
captured by the English proved such rich prizes, 
being laden with silks, spices, precious stones and 



precious metals, that the English merchants and seamen 
determined on opening up the treasures of the East 
to English enterprise, and a charter of incorporation 
was, on the last day of 1600, granted to a corporation 
under the title of " The Governor and Company of 
Merchants of London trading into the East Indies." 

Under this charter the Company acquired, with 
various other privileges, the right to exclude any 
person from trading with any country beyond the 
Cape of Good Hope or the Straits of Magellan without 
a licence from the Company. 

In 1634, one of the Company's captains penetrated 
into China and succeeded in establishing commercial 
relations with Canton, and in 1669 the importation 
of tea from Holland, to which country it was 
brought by the ships of the Dutch East India 
Company, was prohibited, and the tea trade thus 
became a monopoly of the East India Company, 
and they retained the exclusive privilege of im- 
porting tea into this country for more than a 
century and a-half. Their consignments at first were 
small ; in 1669 they received from their station at 
Bantam, in Java, two canisters, containing one hundred 
and forty-three pounds and eight ounces. Their imports 
for the next year were four pots, weighing seventy-nine 


pounds six ounces ; and in 1671 they received two 
hundred and sixty-four pounds, being a total for the 
three years of four hundred and eighty-six pounds, of 
which no less than one hundred and thirty-two pounds 
were damaged. The sound tea appears to have been 
reserved for the use of the Court of Committee and 
for presents, while the damaged tea was sold in their 
sale for three shillings and twopence per pound. 
During the next six years their importations ceased, 
and in 1672-4 they purchased from various persons 
Garway, the coffee-house keeper, amongst them fifty- 
six pounds ten ounces, chiefly for distribution as 
presents ; two pounds two ounces of the finest being 
presented to the King. In 1678, however, they 
imported nearly 5,000 Ibs., which appears to have 
glutted the market, as their imports were merely 
nominal for several years after. 

In 1683 the English were driven out of Bantam by 
the Dutch, which put an end to the imports from that 
quarter ; and in 1684 the Directors wrote as follows 
to their agent in Madras : " In regard to Thea, it is 
grown to be a commodity here; and we have occasion 
to make presents therein to our great friends at Court. 
We would have you send us yearly five or six canisters 
of the very best and freshest tea ; that which will 

colour the water in which it is infused, most of a 
greenish complexion, is generally best accepted." In 
1685 they received, chiefly from Surat, over 12,000 Ibs. 
Some old stock disposed of by them about this time 
must have been of very inferior quality, as it realised 
only from fourpence to sixpence per pound, being 
graphically described as " trash tea from Bantam. 1 " 

Their imports from this time rapidly increased, and 
in 1726 we find an entry of one cargo, by the " Caesar," 
of 358,100 Ibs., on which they paid duty to the amount 

of /7i,620. 

The following is a description of the various kinds 
of tea imported by the Company in 1730, from a 
contemporary writer. It will be noted that at this 
period all the black kinds were included under the 
head of " Bohea," a name which shortly after was 
exclusively applied to the lowest grade : 

" Of Bohea, called by the Chinese " Voui," or " Bui," 
we have the following sorts imported, viz.: i. Pekoe, 
which has the most pleasant and delicate flavour of 
all this first class ; its leaf is very small and black, and 
has many small white flowers mixed with it ; its liquor 
is not of so deep a tincture as the rest, and creams 
briskly when poured out ; the water must stand on it 
a considerable time to draw out its virtues, and 'twill 


bear four or five sundry waters. The closer connection, 
or cohesion of its principles, renders it more balsamic, 
and also hereby it grows better by keeping, which is 
the reverse of Green Tea. The price of this at present 
is I5/- per pound with us. 2. Congo, which has a 
larger leaf, and is of a deeper brown colour than the 
former ; this will bear five waters, but then they must 
not stand long upon it, for unless the water is presently 
poured off, the whole strength of the tea will be drawn 
out at once. Hence, if you mix Pekoe and Congo, you 
shall have an admirable fine tea ; you have all the 
goodness of the last in the first two waters, and of 
the first in the last two or three, but even then the 
water should not stand long. This is sold at i4/- a 
pound. 3. Common Bohea is blacker and larger leaved 
than either of the former, and smells and tastes more 
faint, not unlike dried hay ; it gives the water the 
deepest tincture of all, and two or three waters draw 
out its strength and. virtue. Price I2/- per pound. 

" The different sorts of Green Tea are these : 
i. Hyson, so called from the name of a rich East 
India merchant, who was the first importer of it ; it 
has a smaller, harder, and more curled leaf than the 
common green ; 'tis of a more blue colour, tastes crisp 
in the mouth when chewed, and afterwards looks green 

upon the hand. It scarce tinctures the water (with a 
pale greenness) when strongest, and yet is of a most 
delicious taste. All or most of the leaves should be of 
a clear bluish-green, for if they seem decayed, or look 
brown or blackish, the tea is old and has lost part of 
its virtue. Or, if you pour out a cupful of its liquor, 
and let it stand all night, if its colour continues then 
'tis good ; but if that fades, its virtues are gone, 
especially if its delicate smell and bitterish-sweet taste 
be impaired. This tea will bear four or five waters, 
and requires not so much tea to the same quantity of 
water as the other. 'Tis seldom used alone, but mixed 
with common green, one part to three of the last. The 
price is 36/- per pound. 2. Imperial Green Tea; this 
is of a lighter green colour, has a more flat, large, loose 
leaf than either the last or those which follow. 'Tis 
green to the eye, crisp in the mouth, and pretty pleasant, 
to the smell, but has the faintest taste of any green tea. 
Its specific gravity is the least of all, its principles sit 
loosest, and therefore two waters will draw off its 
strength. Price i8/- per pound. 3. Common Green 
Tea of the better sort has not so large a leaf as the 
last, is of a darker green colour, rougher, and more 
astringent to the taste ; 'twill bear three or four waters. 
Price I5/- per pound. 4. Ordinary Green Tea is yet 


of a darker (or if very coarse, of a light whitish green) 
colour, neither so pleasant to the taste nor smell, and 
is sooner drawn off. Price I3/- per pound. 5. Dutch 
Bloom is a very fine Green Tea, and bears a proportion- 
able rate ; 'tis, probably, one of the Japan Teas, but 
having seen none of it, I will not pretend to describe 
or judge. 6. There grows also a very rough, coarse, un- 
pleasant Green Tea in the Northern Province of Xensi, 
which the hardy Cannibal Tartars, the present masters 
of China use, whose delicate dish is raw horse-flesh, 
and when their dinner sits uneasily upon their stomach, 
they drink of this, and it rarely fails to restore their 
appetite and digestion." 

The downward course of prices since Thomas 
Garway's handbill was published may best be traced 
by a few selected advertisements. In the " Tatler," 
of March, 1710, we find " R. Tate, at the l Star,' in 
Bedford Court, near Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 
offering the finest Bohea at i2/-, i6/-, 2O/-, and 2/j./-, 
and all sorts of Green, the lowest, I2/-." In 1740, 
a grocer, successor to the father of Cowley, the poet, at 
the shop which stood on the site of 192, Fleet Street, 
quoted his prices as follows : " The finest Caper Tea 
at 24/- per lb., fine Gunpowder at i8/- per lb., Hyson 
at i6/- per lb., and Bohea at 7/- per lb." 

A circular of May 8th, 1760, fixes the wholesale 
prices current as follows : 


5. d. 

Bohea, best ..51 

Congou, good . . 80 

fine ..89 


Twankay, good . . 76 

Hyson, good . . 96 

fine .11 o 

,, best .. 96 Gunpowder, good.. 13 o 

Souchong, good ..86 ,, fine.. 15 6 

best ..96 ,, best.. 18 6 

In 1796, William Bennett, of n, George Yard, 
Lombard Street, quotes far lower prices, as follows : 



Common Bohea, i/io; Good, i/n; 




Congou leaf kind, 2/3 and 2/4 ; Fine 

Congou leaf . . 



Congou, 2/9 to 3/6 ; Good 












,, Superfine 






Souchong, 3/9 to 4/3 ; Fine 

.. 4 





,, Superfine 






Pekoe, 5/9 to 6/9 ; Superfine . . 



Common Green, 3/2 ; Good . . 





Best ditto 


Curled leaf, better than Common 

. . 

. . 



Twankay and Single, 3/6 to 4/3 ; Fine 



Fine Green and Bloom. . 

.. 4 





Hyson kind 






Hyson, 5/6 to 5/9 ; Good 

.. 6 




Fine Hyson, 7/- to 8/6 ; Superfine 





Gunpowder Tea, g[- ; Good . . 

. . 10 





,, ,, Superfine 

. . 12 




Although prices were thus coming down, it is 
evident that the tendency of the monopoly was to 
tend to keep prices above the level that they would 
naturally find in a competitive market, and as a 
matter of fact the prices on foreign markets were 
considerably lower than those the Company was able 
to exact from English buyers ; statisticians compute 
that in the latter years of the Company's monopoly 
the consumers of tea in this country had to pay 
^~2, 000,000 sterling a-year more for their tea than the 
same quantities and qualities could be bought for on 
the open markets of the Continent. 

In the hope of in some degree lessening this abuse, 
the Government from time to time when legislating on 
the tea duty, or renewing the Company's charter, intro- 
duced specific regulations for controlling the supply; 
thus, upon the re-adjustment of duty in 1745, it was 
enacted that as the reduction would tend to increase 
the consumption, the Company should be empowered, 
upon giving notice to the Commissioners of the 
Treasury, to import any quantity of tea that might 
be necessary from the continent of Europe, and fr 
the Company should refuse, or be unable to bring 
forward a sufficient quantity, the Government took 
power to themselves, " to grant licences to other 

persons, bodies politick or corporate to import tea 
from any part of Europe"; this power, however, 
was never put in exercise, and prices were still kept 
up above the normal level of other markets. Accord- 
ingly in 1784, when a further modification of duties 
took place, the Government legislated not only as to 
the supply, but as to the price, and in 24 George III., 
cap. 38, s. 5, it is set forth : 

" AND WHEREAS it is just and reasonable that the said United 
Company should, in Consideration of the great Benefit which may 
result to their Commerce from the Reduction of Duties hereby 
made, contribute their utmost endeavours for securing to the 
Public the full Benefit which will arise from an immediate and 
permanent Reduction of Prices ; be it further enacted by the 
Authority aforesaid, That the said United Company shall, as soon 
as may be after the passing of this Act, put up and expose to 
public Sale, at the least, Five Millions of Pounds Weight of Tea ; 
and shall in like Manner, at some other time before the 3ist day 
of December, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, make 
another Sale, at which they shall in like manner put up at the 
least two Millions five hundred thousand pounds Weight of Tea ; 
and shall thenceforward continue to make at the least Four Sales 
in every year, and as near as conveniently may be at equal 
Distances of Time, and shall put up at such Sales such Quantities 
of Tea as shall be judged sufficient to supply the Demand, and 
that at each and every such Sale the Tea to be put up shall be 
sold without Reserve to the highest Bidder, provided that an 
Advance of One Penny per Pound shall be bid upon Prices at 
which the same shall be put up ; and that at the Four first Sales 
which shall be made after the passing of this Act, the Prices at 
which the said Tea shall be put up and exposed to Sale shall not 


exceed the following rates, viz. : For Bohea Tea, One Shilling 
and Sevenpence per Pound ; for Congo Tea, One Shilling and 
Fivepence per Pound ; for Souchong Tea, Three Shillings and 
Threepence per Pound ; for Hyson Tea, Four Shillings and 
Elevenpence per Pound ; and that it shall not be, at any Time 
hereafter, lawful for the said United Company to put up their Tea 
for Sale at any Prices which shall, upon the Whole of the Tea so 
put up at any one Sale, exceed the Prime Cost thereof with the 
Freight and Charges of Importation, together with lawful Interest 
from the Time of the Arrival of such Tea in Great Britain, and 
the common Premium of Insurance, as a Compensation for the 
Sea Risk incurred thereon." 

The Company were also compelled to keep in 
warehouse in London, a stock of tea equal to one 
year's consumption ; but despite all this legislation, 
the burden of the monopoly still pressed heavily on 
the consumer ; in fact, to a great extent the re- 
strictions imposed by the Government on the Company 
operated in the exact opposite direction to which they 
were intended, as they increased the expenses incident 
to the import of tea, and the monopoly, all legislation 
notwithstanding, enabled the Company to extort at 
their sales such excessive prices that tea could only 
be retailed at a cost which, except to the well-to-do, 
was prohibitive. 

The following description of the leading kinds of 
tea put up in the quarterly sales above provided for, 
is taken from a work on the trade published in 1827. 


" The following are the names with a description of 
the appearance, flavour, etc., of the teas imported into 
this country by the East India Company : 


" BOHEA. The worst description of black tea, con- 
taining a very considerable proportion of dust, mixed 
with large flat brown and brownish-green leaves. 

u Bohea, on infusion, generally imparts a dark and 
dull brownish-red colour to water, which, on standing, 
deposits a black sediment. 

u CONGOU. Congous form about five-sevenths of the 
teas imported by the East India Company ; some sorts 
possess a coarseness which approaches a Bohea ; others, 
on the contrary, are full of rich fragrance and flavour, 
and partake of Souchong or Pekoe ; on infusion Congou 
imparts a deep transparent red colour, and in taste 
possesses a strong and pleasant bitter with a rich and 
peculiarly pleasant flavour. 

"SOUCHONG. A fine black tea, similar in appearance 
to Congou, but generally larger ; on infusion, Souchong 
imparts a light but beautifully transparent red colour 
to water, and possesses a most delightful flavour, 

" CAMPOI. Is an inferior kind of Souchong. 

" PEKOE. The richest and most delicious flavoured 


of all teas imported into this country. The leaves are 
long, black, and wiry, tipped at the end with white 
or whitish-grey. On infusion, Pekoe imparts to water 
a rich transparent red, approaching to crimson colour, 
and the infusion is fragrant as ' Gardens of Gul in 
their bloom.' 

"In the chests containing this tea the Chinese often 
put orris root. 

" CAPER. Short curled blackish leaves ; the great 
bulk now imported are ' faint, ' ' odd, ' or ' fishy/ 
and of these the liquor, on standing, deposits a sandy 
sediment intermixed with metallic particles, which 
probably composed the cement of which the balls are 

" TKTSONG. An illegitimate Souchong Tea. 

"PADRAE, POUCHONG, ETC., ETC. These are very fine 
delicate flavoured teas, generally imported in the rich 
present boxes brought over by the officers of the 
Indiamen. These teas are generally folded in small 
parcels in fine Chinese paper, and are chiefly of the 
Souchong kind and flavour. 

" There are other descriptions of Black Tea, but they 
are so little known as scarcely to deserve notice ; such 
as Camho, so called from the province where it grows ; 
it is a pale-looking tea and has a violet smell. 


" TWANKAY. A common green tea, plentifully inter- 
mixed with large flat and yellow leaves. On infusion 
it imparts a yellowish light brown colour to water, is 
slightly bitter, with rather a fishy flavour. 

"HYSON. Bright curled green leaves. On infusion 
it imparts a primrose colour to water ; it possesses a 
pleasant briskness and agreeable flavour. 

"GUNPOWDER differs from Hyson only in appearance." 

The same, writer gives the following description of 
the method of conducting the wholesale tea trade 
during the latter days of the Company's monopoly. 

"The tea sales at the India House are held quarterly, 
viz., in March, June, September and December, at 
which none but sworn tea brokers are allowed to bid, 
and who, consequently, must not be tea dealers. The 
room in which the sale is held is the court in which the 
proprietors meet to transact their affairs. The sale 
generally occupies about ten days, during which time 
noise and confusion reign. To the uninitiated a tea 
sale appears to be a mere arena in which the compara- 
tive strength of the lungs of a portion of his Majesty's 
subjects are to be tried. 

" The wholesale tea dealers attend these quarterly 


tea sales and purchase by their brokers a quantity of 
tea sufficient for their trade, the whole or a part of 
which, according to circumstances, is taken home to 
their private warehouses, where the different sorts and 
flavours are mixed together to meet the wishes of their 

As time went on public opinion became more and 
more alive to the drawbacks of the monopoly ; not only 
had enormous prices to be charged to cover the large 
profits the Company put on their tea and their reckless 
expenditure, but in every way the business was 
inefficiently conducted ; men of no commercial experi- 
ence and cramped ideas ruled the Company ; the 
qualities of courage, foresight, energy, enterprise, and 
originality in their servants, were distasteful to them ; 
their desire was solely to keep business in its old 
channels and pursue their own high and dry methods, 
which had been in vogue for centuries, but the time had 
come when modern commerce could no longer be 
cramped by such bonds. 

In 1828 an investigation was made into the 
Company's manner of conducting the tea trade, and 
the result showed that although the public paid the 
Company for tea, from ."1,500,000 to ^"2,000,000 
sterling every year over and above the price at which 

4 8 

such teas could be bought for in New York or 
Hamburg, yet the Company only showed a profit of 
about ^850,000 per annum, the rest being swallowed 
up in extravagant administration. 

It was obvious that the monopoly was doomed, 
and when in 1834, the time came for the renewal of 
the Charter, the Act 3 & 4, William IV., c. 85, abolished 
the monopoly and threw open the trade to all. 



ALMOST immediately on its first introduction tea 
was seized upon by the Government as a source of 
revenue, and it has ever since had to contribute largely 
to the exchequer of this country. 

In 1660 a tax of 8d. per gallon was imposed on all 
tea made for sale in the coffee-houses, and the keepers of 
them were required to take out licences at the Quarter 
Sessions and enter into securities for the due payment 
of this duty; neglect was punishable by a penalty of 
five pounds per month. The duty was collected by 
officers of the Excise, who made the rounds of the 
licensed coffee-houses at stated periods to take account 
of the number of gallons sold, and upon the totals 
furnished duty was charged. As might have been 
expected, the results obtained under this system of 
collection were anything but satisfactory ; but it 
remained in force until the reign of William and 


Mary, when, in 1689, an Act was passed which set 
forth that " It being found by experience that collecting 
the Excise duty upon the liquors of coffee, tea and 
chocolate was troublesome and unequal upon the 
retailers, and required such an attendance of officers 
as rendered the receipt thereof very inconvenient," it 
was resolved to discontinue it, and in place a Customs 
duty on tea of 55. per Ib. was imposed. 

After many alterations and much legislation, during 
which the tax on imports of tea was increased to 50 per 
cent, of its value, a Commutation Act was passed in 
1784 reducing it to 12^ per cent., and imposing a tax 
on windows in its place. In 1796, however, new duties 
were charged, and they were gradually increased 
until they amounted to 96 and 100 per cent, on the 
value ; these heavy taxes had the natural effect of 
encouraging smuggling and adulteration, which were 
carried on to an enormous extent. Several committees 
of the House of Commons examined the question, and 
no less than 4,000,000 pounds of fictitious tea was 
annually manufactured in different parts of England 
from sloe leaves, ash leaves, and liquorice ; at this time 
the total quantity of genuine tea imported was only 
about 8,000,000 pounds per annum. Again, in 1818, 
another committee reported that " millions of pounds 

weight of sloe and ash-tree leaves are every year 
mixed with Chinese tea in England." Shortly after 
the expiration of the East India Company's monopoly 
the duties were much reduced and a new system of 
collection was introduced, the duty being fixed in 1836 
at 2s. id. per pound instead of a percentage on 
the value. This was raised to 2s. 2^d. in 1840 by 
the imposition of an extra 5 per cent., and by 1844 
the duty realised more than four millions and a-half 
pounds sterling. Agitation was, however, being carried 
on throughout the country for a further reduction in 
the duty, which produced ^5, 47 1,461 in 1850, and close 
on ^"6,000,000 in 1852, and schemes were introduced in 
the Budgets of 1852 and 1853 for its gradual reduction 
to is. The Crimean War, with its vast expenditure, 
intervened to postpone these reductions ; but in April, 
1857, it was lowered to is. 5d. per pound ; from this it 
was reduced, in 1863, to is., and on the ist June, 1865, 
to 6d. In 1890 a further reduction to 4d. per pound 
was made, at which figure it now stands, affording a 
revenue of nearly four million pounds per annum. Tea 
licences were abolished in 1869. 


A CURIOUS point is that out of the millions who use 
this valuable beverage, and acknowledge its mighty 
influence, only a small proportion understand how 
properly to prepare it ; and too many abuse the gift by 
drinking it under conditions that not only deprive it of 
its value, but render it absolutely harmful. Unskilful 
preparation can make good tea into a nauseous draft, 
and the toughest constitution in the world cannot fail 
to be eventually injured by constantly imbibing tea that 
has been overdrawn. A few hints as to the correct 
method of preparation must therefore be of service. 
First, the water in which the leaf is infused should be 
poured upon the tea the moment it boils ; with every 
moment beyond that time the peculiar property oi 
boiling water that acts upon the fragrant leaf evaporates 
more and more, and eventually disappears. Next, 
both kettle and teapot must be immaculately clean and 
of a shining radiance. Of all teapots the little brown 
earthenware teapot, although despised by the aesthetic 
because comfortably easy to live up to, is the very best 
for the purpose. It seems' to be thoroughly impregnated 


with the flavour and redolent of the aroma of the 
plant. A silver teapot is next best, but there is a 
natural hesitation about exposing the precious metal to 
the fire, which militates against its usefulness in this 
regard, for heating the pot is a great essential in making 
good tea. It is more important than the novice might 
imagine to have the teapot made thoroughly hot 
before the tea is put into it. The connoisseur will half 
fill it with hot water, put on the lid, and set it by the 
fire until only the handle can be touched with impunity 
from heat. After this has been carefully attended to, 
better tea can be produced from a less quantity of the 
leaf than if the thorough heating of the receptacle had 
been neglected. Opinion is divided as to the precise 
number of minutes which should be devoted to the 
process of infusion. Some authorities say five minutes, 
others seven. A few even go so far as to recommend 
ten. It is, however, a matter that depends in great 
measure upon the nature of the water all teas taking 
longer to draw in " hard " than in soft water. Only 
experience can afford a safe guide. Coseys are dan- 
gerous, if occasionally ornamental, articles. Originally 
intended to keep the teapot hot during the legitimate 
period of drawing, they have been utilized for main- 
taining the process of infusion during the greater part 


of an afternoon, until the decoction is brought into a 
condition that renders it alike hurtful to the nerves and 
to the digestive organs. The facilities they offer are 
but temptations to avoid the trouble of making fresh 
tea for every fresh set of callers, which should invariably 
be done by every hostess jealous of her reputation as 
an artist in tea-making. Where, however, economy 
must be studied, it may be permitted, although not 
recommended, to make the tea as before instructed, 
and to pour off the infusion at its perfection into a 
second teapot, and keep that warm under the cosey for 
refreshment of visitors as they arrive. 

It may not be inappropriate to quote here the 
advice of a Chinese author on the subject of tea- 
making. " Whenever tea is to be infused for use," 
says Tung Po, u take water from a running stream and 
boil it over a lively fire ; that from springs in the hills 
is the best and river-water the next, while well-water 
is the worst. A lively fire is a clear and bright charcoal 
fire. When making an infusion, do not boil the water 
too hastily, as first it begins to sparkle like crab's eyes, 
then somewhat like fish's eyes, and lastly it boils up 
like pearls innumerable, springing and waving about." 






1610 1668 ....................................... Nominal. 


1669, from Bantam ........................... 143 

1670 ........................... 79 

1671 ..................... ...... 264 

1672 1674, sundries ........................... 56 

1675 1677 ....................................... No imports. 


1678, from Gangam and Surat ............... 4>7 J 3 

1680 Surat .............................. 143 

1682 .............................. 70 

1683 1684 ....................................... No imports. 


1685, from Madras and Surat ............... 12,070 

1686 ............ ... 65 

1687 ............... 4,995 

1688 ........ . ...... 1,666 

1689, fr m Madras and Amoy 

1690 Surat 

1691 u 

1692 Madras 


1694 u 



1697 East Indies 


1699 // // 


1701 u 


1703 // // 

1704 // // 

1705 // // 


1707 // // 


2 5)3 

1708 1717, 10 years, from East Indies 

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6 7 



1JIHERE is substantially but one tea-plant, and all the 
varieties that come into the market are derived 
from different methods of preparing the leaf. Its 
original habitat appears to have been in the hill- 
countries between India and China ; but while it 
remained unnoticed in the former country, until com- 
paratively recently, its value was discovered and its 
virtues appreciated in China before the dawn of 
reliable history. 

Chinese traditions as to the origin of tea extend 
back to the time when Noah was engaged in planting 
his vineyard ; or, to be particular as to date, to the 
year B.C. 3254. At that date the father of Chinese 
agriculture, the Emperor Shing Nong, discovered the 
virtues of the shrub, and, like a practical man, set 
about planting a tea-garden and teaching his subjects 
the art of concocting his favourite beverage. 


Certain somewhat obscure allusions in the "Shee- 
King," compiled by the great Chinese philosopher and 
moralist, Confucius, some 500 years before our era, are 
construed by native authorities as referring to tea. 
Many centuries, however, elapse before we can make 
certain of our ground, but from a critical examination 
of the fables and traditions which have reference to the 
discovery and early use of tea, we may surmise with 
some approach to certainty that the tea-plant was 
known to the Chinese, and its leaves used by them for 
medicinal purposes from a very remote antiquity, but 
that it was not in [general use as a beverage before the 
sixth century. Even then it appears to have been 
only locally used, but during the next two or three 
hundred years its use spread throughout the whole 
Chinese Empire, and it was the theme of numerous 
treatises giving palpably fabulous accounts of its intro- 
duction and use by various emperors of ancient 
dynasties. We have, however, a probably reliable 
account of its use by the Emperor Ven Ty in 584, but 
it appears to have been prescribed to him as a medicine 
by a priest acquainted with its virtues. In 780 the 
learned Lo-Yu wrote an interesting treatise on tea, 
entitled " Cha-Kin," which still remains, and is perhaps 
the most ancient, really authentic description of tea 

6 9 

preserved in the Chinese annals. This author gives 
the following directions for its preparation : "All tea 
is gathered in the second, third, and fourth moons ; the 
leaves must not be gathered in rainy, or even in cloudy 
weather, but when it is fair and clear. Bruise and pat 
them with the hands, roast them over a fire, pack and 
close them up. In this manner tea is prepared, and 
there are a thousand and ten thousand different kinds " 
surely a truly Oriental exaggeration. After eulogising 
at length its fragrance and flavour, he observes : " Tea 
tempers the spirit and harmonizes the mind ; dispels 
lassitude and relieves fatigue ; awakens thought and 
prevents drowsiness ; lightens and refreshes the body 
and clears the perceptive faculties." 

At this time tea must have been of sufficient impor- 
tance as a commodity to, allow of its being made a 
source of revenue ; for in 783, in the reign of the 
Emperor Te Tsong, the first Chinese Tea-duty was 
levied, and, as we noticed in our opening chapter, 
Arabian merchants who visited China in the ninth 
century found tea the common beverage of the country. 

At first, tea appears to have been prepared by 
gathering the leaves and, after pressing them into cakes 
with the hands, drying them over a charcoal fire. 
When required for use, a portion of the cake was 

7 o 

broken off, reduced to powder, and placed in a cup j 
boiling water was then poured on and stirred, and 
the liquor and powder drunk together. Very early 
allusions to the present custom of rolling the leaf are, 
however, to be found, and in the main the methods of 
cultivation and manufacture in use to-day are the same 
as those employed from time immemorial ; some minor 
modifications in respect to fermentation, etc., may 
have been rendered necessary by the European demand 
which has sprung up within the last three centuries, as 
the Chinese say that their more delicately cured tea 
would be unable to stand the voyage without ruinous 
deterioration, and assert that Chinese tea is never seen 
in its perfection in this country. Be this as it may, 
millions of acres are devoted to the cultivation of this 
herb, or rather shrub, in China, and millions of the 
population are dependent on the crop as a means of 

It is said that the poorer land in each tea-growing 
district is given up to the production of tea, the Chinese 
believing that tea will thrive where nothing else will ; 
but this appears to be only partially true. The method 
of cultivation is as follows : In February or March, the 
seeds are sown in specially prepared ground, very moist, 
and in a sheltered situation, When the plants are 

three months old, they are planted out in rows about 
four feet apart, on a hill-side if possible, and carefully 
tended and watered. These plantations are often very 
picturesque, the whole hill-side being covered with 
terraces of tea shrubs ; when they are two or three 
years old, the plucking commences. The times of 
plucking are busy times in the tea-districts, and the 
population turn out into the tea-gardens to gather 
the leaves, much as they do into the hop-fields in 
England. The first picking of the youngest and 
tenderest ' leaves takes place in April and May, and the 
teas produced from it are known here as 'First Crop 
Teas ' ; the second picking takes place when the foliage 
is at its fullest, in about June or July, and after that 
there is a third picking, in which the coarse leaves, 
twigs, and indeed everything which can be made into 
tea, and which can be taken without damaging the 
shrub, is picked ; the first picking is a delicate opera- 
tion, and requires skill and discrimination, and but small 
quantities are secured ; for the others, all comers are 
employed, and the pickers can gather from twelve to 
fifteen pounds weight of the leaves in a day. Unlike 
the system prevailing in India, the tea is not manu- 
factured on the estate where grown, but, after being 
withered by being spread in shallow trays in the sun, 

the leaves are carried to the hongs for sale." A writer 
thus describes the process : 

" The tea-buying is carried on very rapidly. The 
buyer stands on a raised platform, the sellers in the 
large open court in front. Each seller hands up a 
sample of his leaf on a small wicker tray for inspection, 
when the buyer, without a moment's hesitation, fixes 
the price and writes it on a slip of paper, which is 
handed to the seller, who is equally prompt in accepting 
or rejecting the price offered, and there is no chaffering, 
time being too precious. If the price is accepted, the 
leaf at once is carried into the hong, weighed, and the 
money paid on the nail. There is always keen com- 
petition among the buying hongs, and the growers are 
thus secured a full market price." 

After the buying for the day is over, the qualities 
are sorted out, the leaves are slightly fired, and then 
packed away as tightly as hay in a stack, in dark stalls, 
in the interior of the hong, where the tea is left till 
fermentation commences. It is then put into the hands 
of the pickers, women and girls, each of whom receive 
one katty (equal to tlb.) at a time, from which they 
pick out the brown leaves and stalks. The leaf is then 
winnowed to throw the dust off. The fresh leaves 
which are left are gathered together and fired, which 


is the most important process of all, as the appearance, 
character, and flavour all depends on the skill and 
care of the firing. When the charcoal fire is ready, a 
deep basket is placed above it with a grating in the 
middle, over which the leaves are thinly spread, and 
the leaves are in this way rapidly dried ; then they 
undergo a final rolling. When the whole of the leaf of 
one quality has been treated in this way, they are spread 
out again in thin trays in heated chambers for a few 
minutes to drive off any remaining moisture, and turned 
over until perfectly dry and uniformly dark. Nothing 
now remains but to pack them in the familiar lead-lined 
boxes and put them on the market as rapidly as possible. 

The process of manufacture of green tea differs from 
that of black tea, mainly in the leaves not being allowed 
to remain moist long enough for fermentation to take 
place ; the leaves are fired a little as soon as picked, and 
then rolled and rapidly dried in iron pans over a char- 
coal fire. The green tea of commerce is often artificially 
faced, and the Ping Suey kinds are coloured to improve 
their appearance ; there is nothing in the small quantity 
of colouring matter used which is essentially injurious 
to health, but the tea itself is not so wholesome, more 
of the essential oil being preserved in the leaf. 

Oolong tea is prepared somewhat in the same way 


as green teas, but fired without rolling, and not faced. 
All scented teas are flavoured or scented with certain 
flowers which give them their distinctive aroma. 

But whatever the method of preparation adopted, 
there is in each description nearly the same range of 
qualities, according to the size of the leaf and the 
season of picking. 

Congous, besides this difference of time of plucking, 
are divided again into broad groups, defined by the 
district in which they are produced; those from the 
northern districts, shipped from Hankow or Shanghai , 
are technically styled " Black-Leaf Congous," and are 
known under the general name of Monings ; those from 
the central districts, shipped from Foo Chow Foo, are 
technically styled "Red-Leaf Congous," and are known 
under the general name of Kaisows ; those from the 
southern districts, shipped from Canton, are known as 
"New Makes," or " Province-Leaf Congous." Until 
very recently, these last have, as a rule, been ill-fired 
and of poor quality, but lately an immense advance 
has been made in the manufacture, and they have 
come more into favour. 

Each of these three main branches of China Congou, 
*>., Moning, Kaisow and New Make, has numerous 
sub-divisions, which must be examined in detail. 


(Or Black-Leaf Congous J. 

THERE are eight main classes into which the Black- 
Leaf Congous sent to this country are now divided, 
viz. : Kintucks, Keemuns, Kiukiangs, Ning Chows, 
Kutoans, Oonfaas, Oopacks, and Shantams. We will 
proceed to examine their special properties in the order 
as named. 

KINTUCKS. This description, although compara- 
tively new to our market in comparison with some of 
the others hereafter dealt with, is greatly in favour, and 
the fine first crop parcels are more sought after year by 
year as their quality becomes more appreciated ; they 
have a peculiar delicate flavour, a reddish infusion, and 
draw a liquor of good strength, with choice quality. 
The second crop lines, however, are usually not desirable 
teas, being rather ragged and uneven in appearance 
and deteriorating rapidly in quality. 

KEEMUNS are grown in the adjoining district to 

7 6 

the Kintuck kinds, and much resemble them, but are 
richer, drawing a thick, full liquor, and the finer parcels 
are distinguished by a peculiar rich aroma and flavour 
which are found in no other kinds but the true 

KIUKIANGS. These teas, named from the town 
where packed, are from the Hoei Ho district, away in 
the north ; they possess many of the good qualities of 
the Kintuck kinds, possessing fragrance and flavour, 
but most of them sadly lack body, which, of course, 
detracts from their value in a blend. 

NING CHOWS. These teas are, perhaps, the back- 
bone of the Moning kinds, and although the finer lines 
have suffered somewhat in public estimation, in com- 
petition with their more modern rivals, the Kintucks 
and Keemuns, the medium to fine grades still maintain 
an almost undisputed superiority ; even the second crop 
parcels have usually a pretty grey leaf, with some tip, 
closely rolled and well cured, drawing a capital liquor. 
They are valuable teas in a blend, and for ordinary 
purposes are unrivalled amongst the Black-Leaf Teas. 

KUTOAN. This most distinctive tea is often known 
as " Chinese Assam Pekoe " ; it has a short rather 
rusty leaf with some tip, and possesses great strength, 
with much point and, sometimes, fine quality. It is a 


most desirable tea if used quickly, but it has an unfor- 
tunate tendency, if kept long, to develop a " minty " or 
" herby " taste, which is most objectionable, and which 
no blending can entirely remove. 

OONFAA. This tea, from one of the most southerly 
districts, is not usually very taking in appearance, but 
is for its distinctive qualities much prized by certain 
blenders ; the finer grades have very bright infusion, 
and often a marked "smoky" or "tarry" flavour that 
makes them great favourites in some districts. 

OOPACKS are the produce of the district immediately 
above Hankow. Some time ago they were one of the 
leading kinds of Moning in demand, but they have 
gradually fallen into disfavour, and those now shipped 
are generally got up to imitate some other kind more in 
request, and so labelled. 

SHANTAMS are the lowest kind of Moning grown. 
We notice them simply to advise our readers to leave 
them out of any blend, however low in price ; they are 
loose and spongy in make and nasty in liquor, generally 
having a decidedly " mousey" twang. 

In addition to these main divisions, there are several 
other varieties which are occasionally seen on our market, 
amongst which we may mention MONING SOUCHONGS 
with bold leaf and rich, fruity liquor ; ICHANGS, 

resembling KIUKIANGS in many respects ; WENCHOWS, 
with very pretty leaf and thin flavoury liquor. 

Broken leaf teas are known' as siftings or fannings, 
being separated from the whole leaf by sifting or win- 
nowing during the process of manufacture. 

In conclusion, it may be noted that the description 
given on the package is not always a trustworthy indi- 
cation as to the character of its contents ; for, in addition 
to various fancy descriptions sometimes given, all the 
first three kinds enumerated are frequently labelled as 
" Ning Chows," and other discrepancies of a like nature 
are not uncommon. 


(Or Red- Leaf Congous). 

THE port of Foo Chow was opened in 1854, and we 
now draw from thence one-third of the China Congou 
consumed in this country. Like the black-leaf kinds, 
Kaisows may be divided into eight main classes, viz., 
Soo Moos, Ching Wos, Pecco Congous, Panyongs, 
Paklums, Saryunes, Padraes, and Paklins. 

The leading characteristics of these various branches 
may be summed up as follows : 

Soo Moos. This is a good honest class of tea, not 
so attractive to the eye or nose as some of the other 
varieties, but possessing great body and power, the 
infused leaf being generally bright, and the finer parcels 
are distinguished by a very fine Souchong flavour, and 
are much sought after on that account. 

CHING Wos. This variety is a general favourite, 
and is so deservedly. The leaf is usually evenly and 


tightly rolled, and of a silky black complexion, with 
some tip ; the aroma is very fine and delicate ; the 
liquor is, as a rule, of a bright reddish colour, and 
possesses considerable strength and a peculiarly fine 
flavour; in fact, Ching Wos are, in our opinion, the 
most valuable of the red-leaf teas for use in fine blends. 

PECCO CONGOUS : are the most beautiful Kaisows 
imported, the leaf being very evenly and tightly rolled, 
and full of flower. They are held in great esteem in 
certain quarters, and command, on account of their 
appearance, far higher prices than their quality in the 
cup would warrant. 

PANYONGS a variety which has recently come 
greatly into favour ; they resemble in many respects 
the Ching Wo kinds, and are, as a rule, very service- 
able and most reliable teas for use in blending, the 
finer parcels possessing a thick, rich, sappy liquor, 
with fine aroma and rich flavour; excellent founda- 
tion teas may be met with in the medium grades. 
Summer Crop Panyongs are often very distinctive teas, 
being fragrant, strong, brisk and pungent, with tippy 
leaf; they are known as "thorny" Panyongs, or 
Assam Panyongs. 

PAKLUMS much resemble Paklins, which will be 
noticed later on ; the leaf is usually very prettily made 


and closely twisted, and black, with tip ; the liquor is 
rich and thick, but usually lacks point. 

SARYUNES are the best possible foundation teas for 
low-priced blends, where pretty-looking tea is not a 
necessity. They are nearly always reddish in appear- 
ance, with a somewhat open leaf and inclined to be 
dusty, but in liquor they come out rich and ripe, with 
plenty of sap and stamina, and in every respect, except 
appearance, are invaluable in a blend. 

PADRAES are highly fired teas, with black crapey 
leaf, fresh, brisk aroma, rich colour, and intense power 
in the cup, and a peculiar and striking flavour, much 
resembling that of black currants. They are a most 
valuable variety, but require skill in blending to make 
their flavour harmonize. 

PAKLINS are handsomely-made teas from the dis- 
tricts immediately around Foo Chow ; they are usually 
picked early, and carefully prepared and shipped by 
the mail steamers, thus reaching this country before 
the main Kaisow crop. They are almost invariably 
packed in boxes, and are much prized in some localities 
for their body and flavour ; they, however, lack point 
and stamina. 

The old-fashioned Lapseng Souchongs are also 
shipped from Foo Chow, and the finer grades keep up 


the old characteristics and give us an idea of the 
sort of tea prized by our grandfathers ; they still find 
their way into some of the best blends going into con- 
sumption ; their make, however, is frequently loose and 
uneven, which is against their being generally used, 
but the rich, full, delicious liquor is difficult to equal 
with any of the more new-fashioned favourites. 

Other less important varieties of Kaisow are SUEY 
KUTS, with pretty, tippy leaf, and pointy liquor ; ANKOIS 
strong useful teas, and SINCHUNES, which somewhat 
resemble common ANKOIS. 

(Province-Leaf or New District Congous). 

THESE Congous are grown in the Southern Provinces 
of China, and shipped from the Port of Canton. They 
are grown in the districts near the port of shipment,, 
and the first pickings dispatched by the mail steamers 
reach this country some months before the New 
Season's teas from the more northern ports, the bulk 
of which comes from far inland. 

These teas, known generally as New-Makes or 
"Province-leaf Congous," have several varieties com- 
prised in two broad divisions, known commonly as 
Hoyunes and Pekoe Souchong Congous. Under the 
former heading are generally included all those kinds 
that are greyish in hue and bold in make, and that 
possess intense strength in liquor ; under the latter are 
included the kinds in which greater attention has been 
paid to the appearance, and the leaf is usually closely 
rolled and tippy ; after these two divisions come the 

8 4 

low grades of Canton Congou, which are still prepared 
in the old-fashioned style, with a bold, loosely-made 
leaf, and often having a peculiar " bready " smell. 

HOYUXES. This is a most useful class of tea where 
appearance is no consideration, the leaf being generally 
rough ; the infused leaf, however, is of a rich copper 
colour, and the liquor is usually of most intense 
strength, with point and quality more resembling a fine 
Assam Souchong than any Chinese growth. Wherever 
the prejudice against their appearance is overcome, and 
these teas are fairly introduced, they invariably become 
great favourites. 

TARRY HOYUNES. The earliest pickings of Hoyune 
tea are greyish in appearance and have a peculiar 
' l smoky" taste and smell that renders caution neces- 
sary in dealing with them in blending, this taste being 
almost impossible to mask, and being strongly objected 
to by some people ; the teas have, however, many good 
points, and are made a specialite of by some retailers. 

PEKOE SOUCHONG CONGOUS. These teas have a 
very prettily curled leaf, with tip, bright infusion, and 
frequently a very thick, rich, powerful liquor. 

HONEYSUCKLE CONGOUS. Some parcels of Pekoe 
Souchong Congou have a peculiar flavour, known as 
41 honeysuckle flavour," and they are deservedly the 

favourite Canton Cougou with the English trade. They 
have a small reddish leaf ; the liquor is strong and 
brisk, with exquisite flavour. 

COMMON NEW MAKES have few desirable qualities y 
and are used chiefly for export ; we cannot recommend 
their use in blending. 



WE now have to review the class of teas which are 
prepared for the purpose of giving scent and flavour to 
the blends in which they are used. The teas differ from 
the Congous in the method of manufacture, being dried 
and rolled without previously undergoing a process of 
fermentation, thus preserving the pungent sharp flavour, 
but not acquiring thickness and colour. The principal 
flavouring kinds are three varieties of Oolong, from 
Formosa, Kokew, and Amoy respectively ; several 
varieties of Scented Orange Pekoe, principally the long 
leaf from Canton, the short leaf from Foo Chow, the 
Macao kinds, and another variety of short leaf, made to 
imitate the Foo Chow teas, but shipped from Canton ; 
the three leading varieties of scented Caper, viz., the 
black and the olive leaf Canton kinds and the Foo 
Chow Tea. 

We will now deal in detail with the kinds enume- 
rated : 

FORMOSA OOLONGS. This is, in our opinion, the 
prince of flavouring teas, the fine lines being highly 

fired but not burnt, with crisp, dark green, dry leaf 
and some flower, the infused leaf being a bright yellowish 
green, with a tinge of copper colour, and the liquor 
having intense pungency and piquancy, with a most 
delicious flavour ; a dash of the finest will give " nose," 
point, and style to a fine blend. During the last few 
years another variety has been shipped, which is very 
highly burnt, and lacking some of the point and 
sharpness of the old style, has a much darker liquor ; 
this finds much favour with some blenders. 

KOKEW OOLONGS. These teas are, as a class, inferior 
to the Formosa growths, but as their range of price is 
much lower, considerable quantities go into consump- 
tion. The better grades are fairly brisk, with good 
flavour, but the common lines are too often rank and 
nasty ; the leaf is generally loosely made and rough. 

AMOY OOLONG. Very little of this tea is now shipped 
to this market. It somewhat resembles the Kokew, but 
is more yellow in appearance. 

most desirable of scented teas, the finer grades being of 
a beautiful tint of olive-green, with closely rolled leaf 
and some flower. They have an exquisite scent, and 
a flavour quite unrivalled. The medium to fine grades 
of this class are also very useful. 

variety of Scented Orange Pekoe shipped from Canton 
is the long-leaf kind, sometimes known as u spider-leg. '* 
This tea is prepared from the more mature leaves, 
lightly fired and twisted into the well-known long thin 
rolls so characteristic of this variety ; the liquor should 
be strong and pungent, with fine flavour. These teas 
are now frequently made with a smaller leaf, which is 
more suitable for blending. 

These teas are prepared to resemble the Foo Chow 
kinds. They are usually strong and rasping, but some- 
what lack flavour. The variety known as u Ouchaine " 
is greatly in favour with some blenders, who prefer 
it to Caper. The leaf is very short, and mixes well ; 
they are generally strongly scented, and possess much 
grip and pungency. 

usually a fairly well-made leaf, with an olive to some- 
what yellowish complexion, and draw a pungent, 
rasping liquor ; the finer grades are frequently called 
"Mandarin Pekoe." 

CANTON SCENTED CAPERS. The two chief varieties 
of Caper shipped from Canton are the glazed kind 
and the olive-leaf kind ; these are, however, sub- 

stantially the. same tea, and the leaf of the former being 
" faced " with soapstone, &c., the leaf of the other 
being left of its natural olive tint. The principal quality 
sought for in Canton Caper is extreme pungency and 
grip. In selecting lower-priced ones, care should be 
taken to avoid those with a common twang, as the 
facing process affords an opportunity to work up old 
and decayed leaves without detection in the appear- 
ance. From Canton we also obtain the intensely 
strong Hoyune Capers. 

Foo CHOW SCENTED CAPERS have a peculiar crapey 
appearance perfectly pure and free from facing ; they 
are, as a rule, richly scented with very choice flavour ; 
they, however, lack the strength of the Canton kinds, 
and for this reason are but little used. 

All Scented Orange Pekoes and Scented Capers 
are artificially scented usually with a flower called 
Qui Fa, somewhat resembling the Jessamine, but 
occasionally with the Gardenia, or other sweet smelling 
flower, by placing the tea and the scenting flower in 
alternate layers, and exposing to a gentle heat. 


WE have now to consider the characteristics of the 
various kinds of Green Tea now shipped to this 
country. They are broadly divided into two classes, 
viz., "Moyunes" and " Ping Sueys." The trade in 
the so-called " Canton Greens," which were simply 
common Black Teas made up with gum, sand, etc., 
and artificially coloured, has fortunately been stopped 
since the passing of the Adulteration Act. 

The Moyune Teas are divided into three classes, 
viz., the "Nankin," " Fychow," and "True Moyune." 
The two former are usually of great strength and 
pungency, but often with a tendency to coarseness. 
The True Moyunes are distinguished by their pale com- 
plexion and peculiar "cowslip" scent and flavour. A 
variety of Moyune Gunpowder, known as " Ouchaine " 
is greatly in favour with some buyers on account of its 
great strength ; they, however, lack make, the leaf 
being granulated and not rounded. 

The Ping Suey Teas lack the power and quality 
of the Moyune varieties ; indeed, they are pro- 
duced principally for appearance, being made to 
imitate the finer lines of Moyune Gunpowder and 
Young Hyson. They usually come over in boxes of 
about 25 to 35 pounds nett, and are all more or less 

The varieties of Moyune Green, distinguished by 
the age of the leaf and by the make of it, are as 
follows : 

GUNPOWDER. Young to medium leaves rolled in 
balls ranging from " Pinhead " to " Pea Leaf." 

YOUNG HYSON. Young to medium leaf made in 
Congou fashion ; the finest and closest make is known 
as "Gomee." 

IMPERIAL. Older leaves, made in Gunpowder style. 

HYSON. Older leaves, made in Congou style. 
Amongst the finer grades, made from carefully selected 
mature leaves, manipulated with care, are some of the 
finest liquoring Green Teas produced ; they, however, 
find less favour than they deserve on the home market, 
and the greater part are exported. 

The lowest grades, known as u Twankay " and 
" Hyson Skin," when now shipped to this country, are 
usually labelled " Imperial " or u Hyson." 


Of late the consumption of Green Tea has greatly 
decreased in this country, with probably beneficial 
results to the consumer, their very strong astringent 
qualities rendering them, it is reasonable to believe, 
injurious to nerves and the stomach if drunk in large 
quantities ; indeed, the denunciation of tea-drinking 
by American doctors may be explained by the fact that 
Greens and Oolongs and other similar varieties form 
the greater part of the tea drunk in the United States. 
In this country the consumption of Green Tea is 
principally confined to the Midland districts, but even 
there the consumption appears steadily falling off. 

We have now covered the whole ground as regards 
the varieties of tea sent to this country from China, 
and have endeavoured to give a fair estimate of the 
character and blending value of all the leading kinds. 




WE noticed in a previous chapter that the original 
habitat of the tea plant is believed to have been in 
the hills between India and China, from whence it 
spread over both these countries ; but while cultivated 
in China from time immemorial, its cultivation in India 
is of very recent date, although that Chinese plants had 
been imported and were growing in that country was 
known more than a hundred years ago. In 1780, 
Colonel Kyd, residing in Calcutta, had Chinese tea 
plants growing in his garden there, and other instances 
are on record of its presence in botanical and other 
gardens in India. 

Sir J. Banks, in 1788, made efforts, in conjunction 
with Colonel Kyd, to direct attention to the possibility 
of great results to be obtained from the study and 
proper cultivation of tea in India ; but as this would 
have interfered with the China tea trade the East 
India Company's monopoly these efforts were dis- 
couraged by the authorities at home. 

But, later on, the discovery of indigenous tea in the 
province of Assam, by Major R. Bruce, in 1823, brought 

9 6 

the matter again into prominence, and in 1825 the 
Society of Arts offered their gold medal " to the person 
who shall grow and prepare the greatest quantity of tea 
of good quality, not being less than twenty pounds 
weight, in the East Indies, or other British quality," 
which was ultimately gained by Mr. C. A. Bruce, 
brother of Major Bruce, who was present at the capture 
of Sudeya, in Upper Assam, and followed up his 
brother's investigations. In 1832 he laid the informa- 
tion he had obtained before Captain Jenkins, who had 
been sent to report on the resources of the country. 

His report made a great impression on Lord William 
Bentick, the Governor-General, and at his instigation 
a committee was appointed to consider the feasibility 
of introducing the tea industry in the Company's 

The ideas of the committee were strongly in favour 
of introducing plants from China, instead of cultivating 
the native tea ; and Mr. Gordon, their secretary, was 
despatched, in June, 1834, to Macao, with instructions 
to obtain a supply of tea plants and seeds ; but by 
March, 1835, the committee, having meanwhile received 
the reports of scientists who had been sent into Assam 
to report on the tea growing there, decided that the 
importation of China plants was needless, and recalled 


Mr. Gordon, but again despatched him in the autumn of 
the same year to obtain Chinamen able to superintend 
the cultivation and manufacture. In this he was 
successful, and in 1836 operations were commenced in 
earnest, under the direction of Mr. C. A. Bruce, who 
was appointed "superintendent of tea%orests." 

In 1838 the first consignment of twelve chests was 
sent home and favourably reported on, in consequence 
whereof Mr. Bruce was awarded the before-mentioned 
medal of the Society of Arts. Soon after, in 1840, the 
Assam Tea Company was formed, and took over the 
experimental gardens, and ten years later many gardens 
had been started in Assam, and the cultivation rapidly 
spread to Kumaon, Durrung, Cachar, Darjeeling, 
Neilgherries, Chittagong, and more recently to Chora, 
Nagpore, Ceylon, and Travancore. 

The trade at home took kindly to the Indian pro- 
duce, experts spoke highly of it, and good prices were 
obtained on the Mincing Lane Market. Under these 
circumstances there was a rush to form new companies 
and to open new gardens, and promoters were in many 
cases not above roughly clearing patches of waste land 
and planting tea-seed and selling them to new companies 
as established tea estates. Men ignorant of the work 
were put in as managers, and as their only object was 


to show a large output, vast quantities of rubbish were 
shipped to England, and a disastrous fall in prices 
occurred. A collapse naturally followed, and the years 
1865 to 1867 saw widespread ruin amongst the Indian 
tea concerns ; but the disaster was retrieved, tea- 
growing became ; a science, and in the hands of men of 
experience and resource, the methods of cultivation, 
and consequently the quality of the product, have been 
steadily improving from that time forward. 

A few figures will show how rapidly the consumption 
in this country has increased during the last twenty-five 
years : 

In 1864 the consumption) for 2i per Cent, of the 

[ 2,500,000 Ibs. \ 
of Indian Tea was j ( total consumption. 

1867 // ,/ 6,000,000 6 ,/ ,/ 

1870 ,/ // 13,500,000 // 10 ,/ 

1874 // // 21,000,000 // 15 

1875 ,/ ,/ 24,000,000 ,/ 17^ ,/ ,/ 

1876 ,/ // 27,000,000 19 

1877 ,/ /, 29,000,000 19 

1878 // // 38,OOO,000 // 20 

1879 ,/ 56,000,000 19 

1880 // 44,000,000 22 

1881 // 49,000,000 ,/ // 23 

1882 // // 50,000,000 ,/ ,/ 24 .. 

1883 ,, 59,000,000 ,/ /, 28 ,/ , f 

1884 // // 64,000,000 30 // // 

1885 ,/ 69,600,000 // 38 ,/ ,/ 

1886 ,/ 72,000,000 // 41 ,/ // 

1887 ,/ ,/ 84,000,000 // // 46 // 

1888 ,/ ,/ 90,600,000 // 49 ,/ // 

1889 ,/ // 96,000,000 // // 59 ,/ // 

1890 ,/ // 99,500,000 ,/ 61 // ,/ 

1891 // // 97,000,000 ,/ ,/ 55 ,/ // 

1892 // ,/ 107,500,000 // 59 ,/ ,, 

// a 

a a 

n ir 

n it 

n n 




IN India, where the cultivation of tea has now been 
reduced to a science, several varieties of the plant are 
grown, consisting of the China plant, the indigenous 
Indian plant, and a series of hybrids. The indigenous 
plant, though somewhat less hardy than its Chinese 
rival, has many advantages growing to a much greater 
height, producing larger and more frequent " flushes," 
and the teas made therefrom are more rasping and 
pungent. The leading characteristics of the two plants 
are thus summed up by Colonel Money : 

" The indigenous tree has a leaf of nine inches long 
and more. The leaf of the China bush never exceeds 
four inches. The indigenous leaf is a bright pale green, 
the China leaf a dull dark green colour. The indigenous 
* flushes/ that is, produces new tender leaf much 
more copiously than the China, and this in two ways : 


first, the leaves are larger, and thus, if only even in 
number exceed in bulk what the China has given ; and 
secondly, it flushes oftener. The infusion of tea made 
from the indigenous species is far more * rasping ' and 
* pungent ' than what the China plant can give, and 
the tea commands a much higher price. The young 
leaves, from which alone tea is made, are of a much finer 
and softer texture in the indigenous than in the China ; 
the former may be compared to satin, the latter to 
leather. The young leaves of the indigenous, moreover, 
do not harden so quickly as those of the China ; 
thus, if there is any unavoidable delay in picking a 
flush, the loss is less with the former. In the fact that 
ompruned or unpicked plants (for picking is a miniature 
pruning) give fewer and less succulent young leaves, 
which harden quicker than pruned ones, the two 
varieties would seem to be alike. The China variety 
is much more prolific of seed than the indigenous ; the 
former also gives it when younger, and, as seed checks 
leaf, the China is inferior in this as in other respects. 
' The China is by far the hardier plant ; it is much easier 
to rear, and it will grow in widely differing climates, 
which the indigenous will not." 

It is, however, but rarely that a pure plant of either 
species is now seen in cultivation, planters having 


adopted almost universally one or other of the various 
hybrids ; and the first question a new planter has to 
decide, after he has cleared his land, is which variety 
he will select to stock his estate. Having made his 
selection, he will sow his seed either on the spot where 
his plantation is to be, or in a nursery, and transplant 
the young plants later. The plants should be in rows 
about four and a half feet apart. These have to be 
manured and pruned, and carefully attended to for 
three years, when the young plants begin to yield ; and 
if the manager is skilful, and all go well, the yield may 
be large enough to cover expenses by about the fifth or 
sixth year. 

The first operation in the manufacture of tea is 
naturally that of picking the leaf ; only the young 
succulent leaves from fresh shoots are of use for the 
purpose, and from them the different grades are made 
according to their development thus, on a shoot of 
six leaves, the two smallest and youngest will make 
Orange Pekoe, the next two Pekoe, and the two oldest 
and largest Pekoe Souchong or Souchong. It has,, 
however, been found impracticable to keep the different 
sized leaves separate at the time of picking, and all 
are gathered at once and manufactured together, and 
afterwards sorted, as we shall describe later. When the: 


leaf is brought in by the pickers it is carefully weighed ; 
if the weather is wet allowance is made for the moisture, 
and then spread out to wither in light bamboo trays, 
arranged one over the other in houses open to the air 
on all sides, but covered at the top to keep out rain ; 
here it remains until on a handful being taken up and 
squeezed, it no longer makes a crackling noise when 
held to the ear or expands when released. The tea is 
then ready for the rolling process, and for this purpose 
the withered leaves are next spread out on a strong 
deal table covered with matting, and a line of men 
formed on each side, who roll the leaf with their hands, 
constantly passing it in handfuls from hand to hand 
until sufficiently rolled, when it is made into balls and 
placed on an adjacent stand to undergo the process 
of fermentation. The time occupied for this process 
varies from many causes, being quicker in warm than 
in cold weather ; but it may generally be regarded as 
completed when the leaves composing the ball are half 
of them a rusty red and half of them green. The tea 
is then ready for sunning, and the ball should be 
immediately broken open and the tea spread out very 
thin on mats and exposed to the sun for about an hour; 
it is then ready for the final process of firing, and for 
that purpose it is placed in a series of drawers above a 


clear charcoal fire, so arranged that they can be taken out 
from time to time during the process to shake up their 
contents ; this process is continued until the tea has 
become dry and crisp, and then the manufacture is 
complete. It only now remains to separate the different 
classes already noted, which is done by sifting through 
cane sieves with meshes of various sizes, the first allowing 
only the youngest and smallest leaves with which 
there is usually a large proportion of tips to pass 
through, which makes Orange Pekoe ; the next allows 
the Pekoe to pass through ; next the Pekoe Souchong, 
and then the Souchong is left. After that, to pack 
the tea as rapidly as possible, soldering down the lead 
so that it should be air-tight, and preserve the aroma 
and flavour of the tea during its voyage to England. 

In most estates now, however, this old-fashioned 
method of manufacture by hand has been superseded by 
the introduction of most ingenious machinery, effecting 
a vast saving of time and labour. The following is a 
description of one of the most modern processes : 

" The tea, when gathered, is placed in what is called a 
1 cyclone withering and drying machine,' which consists 
of a rotating drum with an exhaust and force fan 
working in an opposite direction in the interior; it is 
ingeniously designed to supersede the slow process 


of drying by spreading out in the heat of the sun 
or in a hot chamber. In the exterior of the drum 
are two doors and two steam passages. The tea having 
been placed in the interior, the door is fastened. As 
the leaf tosses about, the hot air from the fan plays 
upon it, exposing each separate leaf to equal heat. To 
avoid friction, and at the same time obviate the necessity 
of using lubricating oil, the fan revolves on a packing 
of asbestos and plumbago. When, in five minutes, 
the leaves are taken out, they have that kid-glove 
feeling which indicates that the withering process is 
completed. The leaves taken out of the bottom of the 
drum are conveyed to the ' green withered leaf cutting 
machine,' which possesses the great advantage over 
chopping with a knife, that not only is it much quicker 
but there is a saving of between 40 and 50 per cent, in 
the amount of loss through drying. The leaves fall 
from a hopper over a roller, and in between two more 
cylinders, which cut the leaves into the requisite size of 
square. The leaves gathered from underneath are 
placed in a canvas bag and fixed in what is designated 
* the link and lever tea-rolling machine,' where the bag 
revolves between a ribbed central drum and sides. 

u The exterior of the latter is composed of staves, 
which, by an ingenious and powerful application of the 

lever principle, can be drawn tight or expanded, in 
order to produce the desired pressure. Eighty pounds 
of tea can be rolled at one time. Emptied out of the 
bag, the leaves are placed in zinc-bottomed drawers, 
which are fitted into tight-fitting grooves in a chamber 
exposed to hot air. The stove is of a novel design. 
Any kind of fuel can be burned, as the vapour arising 
therefrom does not penetrate to the interior. The 
atmospheric air entering from underneath, is conveyed 
through perpendicular pipes, which throughout their 
length are alternately contracted and expanded, giving 
them the appearance of a turned pillar. By the heat 
from the fire being directed so as to strike on the upper 
end of the pipes, a thorough draught is created, while 
by an economical arrangement the heat, after passing 
through the leaves, is conveyed in a pipe and serves as 
the hot-air supply of the withering machine. 

" For the sorting of the dried leaves is provided a 
unique circular-motion sifting machine, which possesses 
the advantage of being self-delivering and of separating 
the tea into the various qualities. There are four sieves. 
The tea, after being rubbed over the upper sieve by 
hand, falls, by the action of the machine, into No. 2 
sieve, where the Souchong is deposited, while on the 
lower sieves respectively, Pekoe, Pekoe Souchong and 


Orange Pekoe remain, the dust falling through beneath. 
After having been again dried, the tea is packed for the 

The following are the principal grades of Indian 
tea : 





The various broken kinds, viz. : 





Flowery Pekoe is picked from the shrub entirely 
separate from the other descriptions of tea, only the 
buds and young leaves being taken. In the preparation 
it is not subjected so severely to the action of heat, 
and generally preserves a uniform silvery grey tint. 
It usually possesses intense strength and pungency, 
with exquisite penetrating flavour. 

Pekoe is a tea of blackish or greyish blackish 
appearance, dotted over with greyish or yellowish tips 
which, on close inspection, will be found to possess the 
downy appearance which gives the name to Pekoe. 
In general, we do not find the whole leaf covered wifh 
down, but only the ends. Pekoes should be of good to 
fine flavour and of great strength. 


When the Pekoe tips are very numerous and of 
golden orange hue, and the leaf is very small and even, 
the tea is called Orange Pekoe. In flavour it is much 
the same as the finest Pekoes, and many growers do 
not separate the two varieties. 

The term Pekoe Souchong is applied to that large 
and serviceable class of tea intermediate with Pekoe 
and Souchong, and sometimes to a Pekoe that is 
deficient in Pekoe tips, or to a bold Souchong-class 
leaf, with a few ends mixed. In liquor they are 
generally stronger but coarser than Pekoes. 

The name of Broken Pekoe indicates at once what 
the tea is, namely, Pekoe which has been broken 
in the manipulation or otherwise. It possesses more 
strength than the full leaf of Pekoe, and is often of 
finer quality. Owing to the brittleness of the tender 
Pekoe ends, they are sometimes broken off in very large 
quantity, thus adding to the value of the broken Pekoe, 
though at the same time deteriorating the Pekoe. 

Pekoe dust is still smaller broken, so small, in fact, 
as actually to resemble dust. It is of great strength. 

Souchongs should have a bold, even, straight, or 
slightly curved leaf, in length varying say from half-an- 
inch to one-and-a-half inches. They have not the 
quality of Pekoe, but are generally of good strength. 


Congou may be either a leaf of Souchong kind, but 
too large to come under that class, or a smaller leaf, 
too unevenly made or too much curled (so as to 
resemble little balls) to be so classified. The flavour 
is much the same as that of Souchong, but the tea 
usually has not so much strength. 

We now come to the broken descriptions of these 
middle and lower classes of tea. 

Broken Mixed Tea is, as its name imports, a 
mixture of the various kinds of tea broken. It may 
have a very wide range, include some of the lower 
classes, or approach Broken Pekoe in character and 

The term Broken Souchong is commonly applied 
to a tea which, though broken, has some approach 
to a full leaf of the Souchong or Pekoe Souchong 

Fannings is a term of great comprehensiveness. It 
may be of a brownish, brownish-blackish, or blackish 
colour. Its strength is seldom great, but its flavour 
may be fair or good, but in the lower qualities it is- 
generally poor, thin, or coarse. 

Dust is usually of intense strength, but often very 
coarse or " earthy" in flavour, owing, perhaps, tc*> 
sweepings and dust having become mixed with it. 


Another class of Indian Tea, not mentioned in the 
foregoing list, is known as the "Namuna" kind. All 
readers of these pages who have been connected with 
India at any time will recognise the word, meaning a 
" sample" in Hindustani, though they may not quite 
see how it comes to occupy the position in which we 
consider it. It is said that its first application in this 
manner arose from a planter having sent to England 
some sample boxes of tea with the ticket "Namima" 
on them. These teas happened to be of the peculiar 
description which now goes by that name. The London 
brokers being unacquainted with the signification of 
the word, have always since then applied the name 
" Namuna " to this class of tea. These teas are made 
from unfermented leaf, as is the case with China 
Oolongs and Greens. The leaf is generally of a dark 
olive-green. In the pot it produces a very pale liquor, 
but its quality belies the poor, thin appearance of the 
infusion. It is very pungent and penetrating in flavour, 
possessing somewhat of the rasping catch of the Green 
Tea class with the flavour a little refined. The outturn 
is generally green, sometimes with some brownish 
leaves mixed. Any of the black-leaf teas may be of 
this class, from the Pekoe to the lowest dust. These 
teas are often called " Indian Oolongs," or " Indian 
Mandarin Pekoes." 



THE principal Tea-growing districts of India are as 
follows : 

1. Assam. 7. Hazareebaugh. 

2. The Dehra Dhoon. 8. Chittagong. 

3. Kumaon (Himalayas). 9. Terai (below Darjeeling). 

4. Darjeeling (Himalayas). 10. Neilgherries (Madras 

5. Cachar and Sylhet. Hills). 

6. Kangra (Himalayas). u. Western Dooars. 

These are enumerated in the order in which they 
became Tea districts, and in that order we shall now 
proceed to glance at them seriatim, and note the leading 
characteristics of the produce of each. 

ASSAM. This is the principal home of the indigenous 
Indian Plant ; it has the advantages of good soil and 
good climate, and the vast river Burhampootra, which 
runs through Assam from end to end, gives an easy mode 
of export for the Tea. The supply of labour is the chief 


difficulty with which Assam planters have to contend, 
as they are almost entirely dependent on imported 

The principal estates in this district are 

Amgoorie Estate, 1,100 acres Mark g & j) 

The Assam Tea Co.'s Estates, 7,517 acres Am. Co. 
Buchanan & Co.'s Estates ... ... /B&CO\ 

T / 

c I L 

Bishnath Tea Co.'s Estates, 1,491 acres 

Brahmapootra Tea Co.'s Estates, 2,082 
acres Mark 

Doom Dooma Tea Co.'s Estates, 1,527 Mark 
acres ............ 

\ J / 
Jorehaut Tea Co.'s Estates, 3,860 acres ,, Tc 

Land Mortgage Bk. Estates, 1,000 acres ,, M 



Mungledye Tea Co.'s Estates, 1,500 acres ,, 


Noahacharee Tea Co.'s Estates, 2,000 acres. 

I "Kakajan," " Rajoi," " Lahing," 
Debrapar," " Teok." 

Scottish Assam Tea Co.'s Estates, 

1,000 acres Mark co 


\S LD 

Single Estate, 1,000 acres 

R. Gordon, Shaw & Co.'s Estates, 

2,573 acres V/ 

Upper Assam Tea Co.'s Estates, 

2,155 acres 


*u ppv^i 

Tea <> co - 

The principal general characteristics of the Assam 
Teas are strength, body and grip. 

DEHRA DHOON. The Climate of this district is 
most unfavourable, and the great distance from the 
coast renders transport difficult and expensive ; labour, 
however, is cheap and plentiful. 

The principal estates in the district are 
The Dehra Dhoon Tea Company's Estates, i ,000 

acres Mark DDTCo. 

Kawlaghir Estate, 500 acres ,, An Elephant. 

Dehra Dhoon Teas are usually very undesirable, 
being thin and baky. 

KUMAON. The soil of this hilly district is remark- 
ably rich, but the climate is too bracing for the growth 
of good teas ; labour is plentiful, but transport is very 
expensive. The China plant is chiefly cultivated in 
this locality. 

The estates in the district are mostly small (under 
100 acres) ; the largest are 

\ T y 
Mulla Kuthyoor Estate, 500 acres ... Mark M V'K 

/ X 

Kousanie Tea Company's Estates, 350 acres ,, K T Co. 

Kumaon Teas, as a rule, draw light, brisk, pungent 

DARJEELING. This is another hill district, the 
elevation of the station being 6,900 feet ; the climate is 
better than Kumaon, there being more rain in spring. 
Transport to Calcutta by rail is easy ; the plants, with 
few exceptions, are grown from Chinese seed. 

The gardens are numerous, but many of them are 
very small. Amongst the principal estates are 

The Darjeeling Tea Co.'s Estates, 1,600 

acres ... Mark 

Gen. Fyers & Dr. Brougham's Estates, 

900 acres Mark /' F'B \ 

AND / K \ 

F B " 

AND / T V 

/ FB > 

Kurseong and Darjeeling Tea Co.'s) ( 

Estates, 800 acres ... 

Land Mortgage Bank of India Estates, 
1,720 acres ... 

Lebong Tea Co.'s Estates, 1,000 acres... 

Sungma Tea Co.'s Estates, 600 acres ... 
Testa Valley Tea Co.'s Estates, 600 acres 
Tuckvar Co.'s Estates, 850 acres 


I A 

\ L 


< L X b he n 


\ T / 

Darjeeling Teas are noted for their aroma and 

CACHAR AND SYLHET. These districts are virtually 
but one, and the climate differs but little from that of 
Assam ; there is more rain in the spring, but the soil is 
poorer. Water transport to Calcutta is good. 

British Indian Tea Co.'s Estates, 650 

acres Mark 

Buchanan & Co.'s & Chargola Tea Co.'s 
Estates, 8,500 acres 

Central Cachar Tea Co.'s Estates, Q Q Tea Co 

1,200 acres ............ n LD. 

Chandypore Tea Co.'s Estates, 1,000 Chandypore 
acr _ Tea Co., LD. 

- C.&B. 

Cherra Tea Co.'s Estates, 1,500 Pathecherra 

acres... ... Anchor 

Eastern Cachar Tea Co.'s Estates, /\ 

1,500 acres ... ... 

Endogram Tea Co.'s Estates, 1,000 

acres... Endogram 

Land Mortgage Bank Estates, 1,700 


Loobah Tea Co.'s Estates, 1,500 ( Loobah 

acres , 

Scotpore Tea Co.'s Estates, 2,200 


/ s. T. Co. / 

Silcoorie Tea Garden, 2,000 acres ... Mark CCL 

South Sylhet Tea Co.'s Estates, 2,000 ~ ~ T 

o C U 1 

Tarrapore Tea Co.'s Estates, 2,000 



acres / ~ \ 

Cachar Teas, as a rule, are very similar to the Assam 
kinds, but usually have less body, but more point. 

KANGRA. This is a charming valley, but too dry and 
cold for a perfect tea climate. The soil is fairly good, 
and local labour plentiful. Transport to Calcutta is 
difficult, but much of the tea grown here finds a market 
amongst the tribes of 'Central Asia. 

The gardens in the Kangra Valley are all small, the 
principal being 

The Kangra Valley Tea Co.'s 

Estates, 300 acres Mark 

TT T* 

The Holta Tea Co.'s Estates, 500 acres Mark 

The fine teas of this district have a peculiarly 
delicate flavour, and are much esteemed by some 
tasters. * 

HAZAREEBAUGH. The climate of this district is too 
dry to be favourable for tea growing, the soil is poor 
and transport is difficult ; labour, however, is very 
abundant and economical. 

There are but few estates, the principal being 


Ihoomra Estates, 200 acres ... Mark / J \ 


Mowdie Hill Co.'s Estates, 172 acres M. H. Co. 

\ R / 
Rambugh Tea Co.'s Estates, 350 \/ 


CHITTAGONG. This district has for the most part 
good soil, some tracts being exceedingly rich ; there is 
a plentiful supply of local labour and 'great advantages 
for transport. 

The principal estates are 


Chandpore Estate, ^ /M M \ $ 

500 acres ... Mark / \&co/ \ 

^ \/ 


Futticherri Tea Estate, 353 acres Mark W '" M * 
Kornafuli Association's Estates, ^ r y 



Sungoo River Tea Co.'s Estates, 
450 acres Mark 

Chittagong Teas, as a rule, possess great body and 

TERAI. Soil and climate are good for tea, but 
unhealthy ; labour is a difficulty. 

The principal estates are 

Central Terai Tea Co.'s Estates, 350 Central 

acres ... ...Mark Terai. 

Indian Terai Tea Co.'s Estates, 300 T \/ T 

Naxalbarrie Estate, 220 acres .. 

Ord Terai Tea Estate, 220 


acres Mark 

TERAI Tea Estate, 200 acres ... Mark 

Terai Teas are usually on Darjeeling in character. 

NKILGHERRIES. The climate of this district is too 
temperate for large produce, but the soil is excellent. 

The marks of the principal estates are : 

B. & D. 


In a Pineapple. 






Many of the best estates now turn out teas resembling 
Ceylons in character. 

WESTERN DOOARS. The soil and climate of this 
new district are both excellent, and there are great 
facilities for railway transport. 

The principal estates are : 

Bagracote Tea Co.'s Estates, 800 

acres Mark 

Dooars Tea Co.'s Estates, 600 acres Bamandanga. 

Leesh River Co.'s Estates, 400 

Phoolbarrie Tea Co.'s Estates, 650 
acres ,, 



THE development of Ceylon as a tea-producing country 
has been almost sensational in its suddenness. It had 
long been known that the tea plant grew wild in the 
island, and at the beginning of the present century 
Percival, in his " Account of Ceylon/' refers to it as 
follows : " The tea-plant has been discovered native 
in the forests of Ceylon. It grows spontaneously in 
the neighbourhood of Trincomalee and other northern 
parts of Ceylon. I have in my possession a letter from 
an officer of the 8oth Regiment, in which he states that 
he found the real tea plant in the woods of Ceylon of a 
quality equal to any that ever grew in China." 

The attention of the Ceylon planters was, however,, 
devoted almost exclusively to the growing of coffee,. 
and no attempt was made to turn tea to profitable 
account until the outbreak of the leaf disease amongst 
the coffee plants caused widespread ruin throughout 
the island. Then certain enterprising spirits made 
experiments as to whether tea could not be made a 


profitable alternative crop to coffee, and undreamt-of 
success resulted ; the shrubs produced larger and more 
frequent flushes than could be obtained in Indian 
gardens ; and the teas, produced at a very low cost, 
sold in London at prices that showed handsome profits 
to the growers. Naturally, tea-growing was taken up 
on every hand everywhere in the island ; on the hills as 
well as in the low country. Fresh estates are still being 
cleared and planted with tea, and old coffee estates 
which have ceased to be remunerative are having the 
coffee plants rooted up to make room for its more 
profitable new rival ; and on the virgin soil of the 
island the plants not only produce teas of the highest 
quality, but are prolific to an unprecedented extent, 
the out-turn per acre in some special cases being put 
down at no less than 1,500 Ibs. per acre. 

The following figures, giving the exports of tea 
from Colombo during the last nineteen years, show the 
marvellous expansion of the Ceylon tea trade in that 
short period : 

Tea Exported from Oct. ist, 1874, to Sept. 3oth, 1875. . nil 

n // // 1875 1876.. 282lbs. 

// v n 1876 1877.. 1,775 

// // // 1877 1878.. 3,515 /, 

// // // 1878 1879.. 81,595 // 

// // // 1879 1880.. 103,624 // 


Tea Exported from Oct. ist, 1880, to Sept. 3oth, 1881 . . 277,590153. 

,/ // ,/ 1881 ,, 1882.. 623,292 

i, 1882 1883.. 1,522,882 

,/ 1883 1884.. 2,262,539 ,, 

,/ // // 1884 ,/ 1885.. 3,796,684 

// // // 1885 // 1886.. 7,170,329 // 

// ,/ 1886 1887.. 12,013,686 // 

// // // 1887 1888.. 20,755,779 // 

// // // 1888 1889.. 32,516,682 ,/ 

,/ 1889 1890.. 43,800, ooo // 

// // // 1890 1891.. 60,300, ooo 

// // // 1891 1892.. 66,100,000 

// // // 1892 // 1893.. 71,200,000 // 

The plants, or "Jat," from which the crop is 
raised, differ in the various estates. There are three 
main varieties of plants, viz., the Chinese, the Indian 
indigenous, and a hybrid obtained by crossing the two. 

To the variety of the plants and to the difference 
in soil and elevation, and to the system of plucking 
adopted, whether fine, medium, or coarse, the distin- 
guishing characteristics of the product of the various 
estates are mainly due, as the method of manufacture by 
machinery is now almost universally adopted. 

The teas from most of the estates are divided, in a 
similar manner to Indian varieties, into the following 
grades : 

ORANGE PEKOE ] the youngest and smallest leaves, 

BROKEN ORANGE PEKOE . . j with golden orange tip. 

PEKOE } young leaf, closely rolled, usually 

BROKEN PEKOE I well tipped. 


PEKOE SOUCHONG . . . . 1 the more mature leaves, care- 

SOUCHONG ) mature leaves, more roughly 

BROKEN TEA ) made. 

And sometimes 

CONGOU oldest, roughest leaf. 

PEKOE FANNINGS and ) . it , . ,. 

\ names sufficiently descriptive. 

The prices obtained for these various qualities vary 
greatly according to the characteristics of each particular 
parcel. The teas from the more celebrated estates, such 
as Hoolankande, Loolcondura, Blackstone, etc., command 
very extreme rates, but an expert taster may often find 
teas of equal quality from less known estates at much 
lower prices than the crack marks are fetching. 

As regards the value of Ceylons for blending pur- 
poses, we may say that, as a rule, they are matchless 
for fullness of body and .richness of flavour, but they 
lack the strength and grip of many Indian varieties. 
Their qualities render them more valuable for drinking 
unmixed than for blending, and those retailers who 
are doing the largest trade in Ceylon teas are selling 
them unmixed as a speciality, and find their superb 
quality thoroughly appreciated by the consumer. 

The following is a list of the principal estates on 


the island. It includes all from which we received one 
hundred thousand pounds of tea and upwards during 

1888 : 

L. (low) represents from sea-level up to 1,000 feet. 

M. (medium) 1,000 to 2,500 feet. 

H.M. (high medium) 2,500 to 3,500 feet. 

H. (high) 3,500 to 5,000 feet. 

And HH. (highest) above 5,000 feet. 

K. A.W 

Vellai-Oya(E.P.&E.C.) .. 


Wallaha , 



Darrawella (O.B.E.C.) 



Lebanon, Middleton and Leangolla. 



Westhall , 


Blackwater , 

Hope (E. P. & E.G.) 






Great Western 

Meddecombra (E. P. & E. C.) 


W. A 



Yuillefield .. .. 


Windsor Forest 


Adam's Peak 



.. H. 
.. M. 
.. H. 
.. H. 
.. M. 
.. L. 
.. H. 
.. L. 
. H. 

























The following five-and- twenty estates had the honour 
of securing the highest average prices for their teas 
during 1888 : 


.. H. 

Deyanella .. 

.. H. 

Charley Valley 

.. H. 


.. H. 


.. H. 

Tasmania . . 

.. H. 

Blackstone . . 

.. M. 


.. H. 


.. H. 


.. H. 

Portswood .. 

.. HH. 

Goatfell . . 

.. H. 


.. H. 



Glendoven .. 

.. H. 

Waverley .. 

.. H. 


.. H. 

Agrakande . . 

.. H. 


.. H. 

Craigre Lee 

.. H. 


.. H. 


.. H. 

Hurdagalla . . 

.. M. 


.. H. 

Chapelton .. 

.. H. 



JAPAN TEAS. The principal produce of Japan is 
unfermented natural leaf tea of the Oolong character, 
chiefly for the American market. These teas draw a 
pale, fine liquor with point, but lack strength and colour; 
small quantities of black tea are also prepared, which 
sometimes show fine quality, but on account of their 
peculiar aroma and flavour they find little favour with 
blenders in this country ; the finer kinds are usually 
marked "Japan Pekoe," and the lower kinds, "Japan 

JAVA TEAS. The aim of the tea-planters of Java 
has been almost exclusively to secure a large out-turn 
per acre and a beautiful leaf: in both these they have 
succeeded, the produce per acre being nearly double 
that of the Indian gardens, and their finest teas being 
the most beautiful the world produces ; unfortunately, 
however, quality in the cup has been almost entirely 
neglected, consequently their teas enjoy an evil 


reputation with blenders, the general run being thin, 
baky and earthy, and some of the lowest kinds are so 
sour and nasty as to ruin any blend, however sparingly 
introduced. Of late years, however, some estate 
managers appear to have realised the wisdom of 
aiming at a higher standard of quality ; seed has been 
imported from India, and improvements in cultivation 
and manufacture have been introduced with most 
beneficial results ; but, for some years to come, Java 
teas will have to be very cautiously handled by 
blenders, and probably the wiser and safer course is 
to let them entirely alone, as the common grades are 
worse than useless, and, as a rule, even the better 
kinds rapidly "go off" if kept. 

The classes of Java tea are as follows : 

Flowery Pekoe. 

Pekoe Souchong. 

Broken Flowery Pekoe 
Broken Pekoe. 
Pekoe Dust. 
Broken Tea. 

The chests used to be papered in a somewhat 
similar manner to Chinese packages, but on< many 
estates they are now being made plain, resembling 
Indian chests. 


Small consignments of tea from the Straits Settle- 
ments and from North Borneo have recently been placed 
on the market ; they resemble a low grade of Indian 
tea, and are of little importance at present. 

Tea is also being grown experimentally in Natal 
the first consignment of some 500 Ibs. reaching London 
in May, 1886 in South Russia, Italy, and other 
countries, but at present these are mere experiments, 
and have no effect commercially. Should any of them 
eventually take a place amongst the ingredients from 
which the tea-blender has to make his selection, it will 
be our duty to deal with them in a future edition of 
this work. 

For the present, however, we have completed the 
first portion of our task, and have set forth the produce 
of the various countries from which our tea-blender 
has to make his selection, and having noted the 
characteristics of the leading varieties, we shall now 
proceed to lay down the general principles by which 
the composition of a successful blend must be guided. 



IT has now become so entirely a matter of course 
with the trade to blend several kinds of tea together, 
before offering them to consumers, that it is somewhat 
astonishing to reflect how recent is the growth of this 
practice. When tea was first introduced, the kinds 
were few, and it found its way to the public in leaf or 
in infusion through the coffee-houses, duty being levied 
on the infusion at the rate of 8d. per gallon ; and from 
Garway's time till within the last forty or fifty years 
the bulk of the imports found its way into the 
housewife's tea-pot unmixed, or, if mixing were done, 
it was done by the good lady herself, who would have 
by her some fine Flowery Pekoe or choice Gunpowder 
to add to her Bohea or Souchong on great occasions. 

It was not, indeed, until Indian teas came fully on 
to the market that the practice of blending became 
universal. Their great strength was a valuable quality, 


which would not allow them to be ignored ; while, on 
the other hand, their harshness made them unaccept- 
able to the public by themselves ; hence they were 
mixed with China teas, at first in small proportions, 
but, as the production increased, and improved cultiva- 
tion and manufacture removed many of the objection- 
able qualities possessed by some of the earlier imports, 
the proportion of Indian tea used became larger and 
larger, until to-day more than half of the total of tea 
consumed in this country is supplied by India, and 
in many districts China teas have virtually gone out 
of consumption. 

As tea-blending became more and more general, the 
producers, especially in India, gradually ceased to aim 
at turning out teas which should possess a combination 
of qualities rendering them suitable for drinking by 
themselves, and became specialists aiming to secure 
for their teas some one striking and distinctive quality ; 
thus one strove to produce tea which should draw liquor 
of very dark colour another, to secure a delicately fine 
aroma and flavour ; a third, to secure intense pungency, 
and so on, leaving the skilled blender at home to select 
and combine the various growths in a manner best 
calculated to suit the water of his district and the 
taste of his customers. 


The cause of the failure of many retailers to work 
up a successful and profitable tea trade lies, beyond 
doubt, in the fact that their blends are unskilfully 
compounded, many of them undertaking the com- 
position of blends without possessing the requisite 
knowledge of the properties of the various classes of 
tea, or the lines on which they should be combined ; 
and thus through the neglect of many, even of the 
biggest buyers, to go into the matter scientifically, 
immense quantities of good teas are annually spoilt, 
and men are heard complaining that although they 
cut their teas desperately close they cannot keep their 
trade together. 

The chief objects to keep in view in making up a 
blend are that it shall come out well in the water in 
which it is to be infused, and that it shall possess a 
flavour which shall please the taste of your customers, 
and at the same time be sufficiently distinctive to make 
the blend your own speciality, and he who secures 
these objects at the least cost will be the most 
successful blender. 

The first consideration, then, is the nature of the 
water-supply of your district ; if it contains lime and 
other minerals in solution it is termed "hard," and 
such water fails to draw out the characteristics of fine 


teas, and strong, rough kinds have to be employed. In 
"soft" water, however, all that is in the tea comes 
out, and the strong, rough kinds, suitable for hard 
water, taste coarse and rank, and the fine flavoury 
kinds are more suitable. 

The following is a list of some of the leading classes 
of tea most suitable for the different kinds of water : 

For "Hard" Water: 

Moning kinds .. .. Oonfaa (strong, tarry tea). 

Kaisow kinds Saryune (rich, brisk, strong, blood-red 

liquor) . 

Padrae (strong, rough, high burnt}. 
Ankoi (similar to Padrae, but not so 

desirable, as they often taste "bakey"). 

New District Teas . . Hoyunes (blood-red colour, intense strength, 
often tarry}. 

Indian Teas A.11 strong, pungent, rasping kinds. 

Brokens especially useful. 

For "Medium" Water: 

Moning kinds . . . . Oonfaa (strong, tarry tea}. 

Oopack (strong, brisk}. 
Kaisow kinds Saryune (rich, strong, blood-red liquor}. 

Soo Moo (rich, Souchong flavoured}. 

Panyung or Ching Wo (the finest of all 

red-leaf teas}. 
New District Teas . . Pekoe and Honeysuckle Congous. 

Indian Teas All strong, rich, pungent kinds. 

Ceylon Teas Nearly all kinds. 


For "Soft" Water: 

Moning kinds .. .. Kintuck ) Three most desirable 
Keemun [ kinds. 

King Chow j Fine flavoury teas. 

Kaisow kinds Panyong or Ching Wo (the finest of all 

red-leaf teas). 
Paklin (in boxes, fresh and fine). 

New District Teas . . Honeysuckle Congous. 

Indian Teas All fine flavoury kinds. 

Darjeeling and Kangra Valley growths, 
very useful. 

Ceylon Teas All kinds. 

The next point to consider, after the nature of the 
water of your district, is the taste of the customers for 
whom you intend to cater. The taste of the consumer 
varies very considerably, according to the district, and 
to a great extent this taste must be followed by the 
man who intends to work up a big trade. Certain 
bold spirits, however, finding the taste of their district 
to be, in their opinion, vitiated by an excessive use 
of Scented Caper or other breach of the laws of good 
blending, have made it their study to educate and 
elevate the taste of their customers, and have achieved 
success ; this is, however, an arduous and slow process, 
and most retailers of tea will probably prefer the simpler 


method of falling in with the prevailing taste of their 
customers at first, and introducing improvements from 
time to time as they see their opportunity ; but the 
danger in this course is that our blender may allow 
his teas to sink into a dead level with those of his 
neighbours, without distinctive character or quality ; 
and this brings us to the third and, perhaps, most 
important essential of good blending, namely, the 
necessity of your blend being sufficiently distinctive 
to make it your own speciality. This can be always 
done, where necessary, within the lines of the taste 
prevailing in your district; but where there is a freer 
scope, by reason of more varied taste, as in London or 
other large centres, the blender has a much wider range 
from which to select his special flavour and style ; and 
thus we find, on examining the teas of the leading 
London retail tea-men, hardly any two of them are 
composed upon the same lines, the aim of each being 
to make a blend differing from that which his customers 
would obtain from other sources, knowing that when 
once they had become used to his tea, provided it was 
really good, and pleased with its distinctive flavour, 
their custom would be assured to him. This is the 
secret of the success of most of the well-known blends 
and blenders, and it is a point too often utterly ignored 


by grocers, but which must be most carefully attended 
to by them if they mean to retain and increase their 
tea trade. 

Our readers may, perhaps, imagine, after all this 
caution and exhortation, that tea-blending is an art too 
complicated to be mastered by a man who has the 
details of a large and varied business on his hands, 
and that after all he may have to fall back either on 
the old haphazard system or lose the best of his 
profits and put his trade in the hands of others by 
having recourse to the system of buying blended tea ; 
this, however, is not by any means the case. Put 
practically, the matter will appear very simple. 

First ascertain the nature of your water-supply, 
next the composition of the blends which are most 
extensively going into consumption in your district, 
then experiment with the teas we have indicated as 
most suitable for your water to improve on the said 
blends, and finally introduce some ingredient into your 
blend that shall differentiate it from those of your 
neighbour. There are many ways of doing this ; some 
particular mark of Assam, or some particular class 
of Assam, say an Autumnal or Namuna Tea, some 
particular Scented or Oolong Tea, or some combination 
of these or other flavours, make a practically endless 


series of distinctive characteristics which may be 
imparted to your teas. 

To make the matter still more simple, we shall 
lay before you particulars of several specimen blends, 
which are not intended so much to be exactly imitated 
as to indicate the lines upon which practical blending 
may be most advantageously carried on. 

The various ingredients of your blend being selected, 
your next care must be to get them thoroughly assimi- 
lated ; this is best effected, in the first place, by the use 
of a good tea mixer, which will distribute the leaves of 
the various teas in a fairly even proportion throughout 
the bulk ; but so far the assimilation will be merely 
mechanical, and necessarily, to a great extent, imperfect. 
To render the assimilation thorough and complete, the 
blend must now be put in air-tight canisters and 
allowed to remain in a room with as even a tem- 
perature as is obtainable for at least a week ; by this 
time the interchange and combination of the flavour of 
the various ingredients will usually be accomplished, 
but in some instances it will be found advantageous to 
allow the blend to mature for a longer period. 

The question of the appearance of your tea is one 
that should not be neglected, as although the remark 
"that tea is not sold to look at" is true enough, yet it 


is remarkable to what extent people are prejudiced for 
or against a tea by its appearance. It will, therefore, 
be found desirable in most cases, and especially where 
teas of irregular appearance are used, to sift them 
before putting them into the mixer, to remove the large 
leaves, which should be cut to gauge in a tea mill, and 
then placed in the mixer with the rest of the blend ; in 
some cases it may also be necessary to sift out the dust, 
but this is not recommended, as it is the best liquoring 
part of the tea. 

Your blends are now ready for sale, and, of course, 
after they leave your hands, you, to a great extent, have 
no control over their fate, and the result of all your 
skill may after all be well-nigh spoilt by careless or 
improper brewing ; therefore it is well to print clearly 
on every tea wrapper brief hints as to how tea ought 
to be made, in which the following points should be 
insisted on : First, and of greatest importance, that the 
water should not be put on the tea until it is boiling, 
and that it should be put on the tea the minute it boils ; 
water not quite boiling, or water that has been boiled 
some time, will spoil any tea ; next it should not be 
allowed to stand under a cosy for an indefinite period ; 
indeed, it is a great and far too common mistake in 
brewing tea to allow it to stand too long, the first 


five minutes bring out the quality, the next five 
minutes add to the body, and after that the longer it 
stands the worse it gets. These are the two most 
important points. It should, however, be known that 
there is nothing so good as an old-fashioned brown 
earthenware pot for making tea ; next to that is a 
silver tea-pot. 



THE following specimen blends are of the simplest 
possible character, and are merely intended as a basis 
or guide for those commencing the work of scientific 
tea-blending. As the complexity of the blends increase, 
the possible variations become so numerous that it is 
obviously impracticable even to indicate them within 
the limits of such a work as the present, but to a 
practical man, keeping pace with the times, fresh 
developments and new combinations growing out of 
these foundations will constantly suggest themselves. 

The lowest-priced teas usually sold by grocers to-day, 
ranging in price from is. to is. 4d., must be made up 
according to the fluctuations of the Mincing Lane 
Market from time to time ; for the lowest, very decent 
Indians may sometimes be obtained at prices low enough 
to show a profit ; at other times carefully selected Javas 


must be substituted, and where admissible low price 
Scented Capers may be worked in to decrease the cost 
and increase pungency. A fraction of a penny in buying 
low-priced teas will often make all the difference 
between a good and a common tea ; it is false economy 
to inflict nasty rubbish on your customers to save a 


Medium-priced tea. Principal ingredients : 
Flavoury Ceylon. 
Rich Dooars. 

NOTES. Above will make a strong, thick tea, will 
come out well in all waters. 

Scented Orange Pekoe or Oolong can be used 
where desired. 


Medium-priced tea. Principal ingredients : 
Brisk Pungent Assam. 
Rich Dooars. 

NOTES. The above will, perhaps, be more taking than 
No. I, in districts where the water is very hard. 

Ouchaine-Scented tea, very useful for giving extra 
rasp and grip. 



Good medium tea (25. canister). Principal ingre- 
dients : 

Flavoury Ceylon Pekoe. 

Rich Dooars Pekoe. 

NOTES. Well selected and carefully blended, the above 
should produce a rich, delicious tea. 

May be flavoured with a dash of finest Oolong. 


Good medium tea (23. canister). Principal ingre- 
dients : 

Fine Flavoury Pungent Assam Pekoe. 

Rich Dooars Pekoe. 

NOTE. A grand liquoring tea for medium hard water, 
flavour with finest Oolong. 


Good medium tea (25. canister). Principal ingre- 
dients : 

Hard Leaf Malty Strong Assam Pekoe (whole 
leaf or semi-broken). 

NOTE. Suitable for very hard water. 

Scented Caper or Ouchaine Pekoe may be added. 



Fine to finest tea. Principal ingredients : ] 
Fine Ceylon Broken Pekoe. 
Rich Dooars Pekoe. 
NOTE. Suitable for soft water. 

Flavour with a very little of the finest Oolong. 


For fine to finest tea. Principal ingredients : 
Thick Ceylon Broken Pekoe. 
Flavoury Assam Pekoe. 
NOTE. Suitable for medium water. 

The character of this blend can be freely varied 
according to the class of Assam Pekoe used ; if a 
very pungent kind is selected, no Scented tea 
should be used. 

For fine to finest tea. Ingredients : 

Assam Broken Pekoe (Jorehaut kind). 

Ceylon Pekoe or Broken Pekoe (mountain 
grown tea). 

NOTE. For very hard water. 

Oolong or Fine Namuna Pekoe may be used to 
give extra grip. 




THE art of Tea-Blending is one which cannot be too 
thoroughly or too methodically studied by every Tea 
Dealer who wishes to make a position for himself in 
his trade. 

The man who has really mastered it can defy all 
competition ; by careful tasting he can buy as well as 
the large houses, and by making the characteristics of 
the water of his locality his special study, he can please 
his customers far better than any outsider can possibly 
do, however extensive his operations may be, and at 
the same time secure a good profit for himself. 

The main principles of this art are easily laid 
down ; their practical application must be a matter for 
the personal consideration of each blender, guided by 
the peculiar circumstances of each case. 

It is of the utmost importance to select teas that 
will mix well ; for instance, to put a fine flavoury tea 
to a coarse tea will deteriorate both, while to add it 
to a full, rich liquoring tea will improve both. 

Desirable Indian Teas may be used very freely 
to give strength, point, and flavour, but sour or 
acrid Indians, or low Javas, should never under any 
circumstances be used. 

Avoid unsound teas most rigorously ; a tea with the 
least trace of mustiness or the least mousy flavour will 
spoil any blend. 

Scented Teas are often used most unwisely ; for 
ordinary purposes I Ib. in 12, or even i Ib. in 16, is 
quite sufficient to give the blend a distinctive flavour. 
Fine Oolong or Foo Chow Pekoe are the most desirable 

Of course, this applies to ordinary trade ; in the 
Caper districts people will sometimes drink a mixture 
of one part Caper, two parts pungent broken Assam, 
and appear to like it. 

When the mixture is made up, it should be allowed 
to stand in air-tight canisters at least a week before 
it is sold, the flavour of the component parts thus 
assimilates. Remember if your tea is allowed to 
stand near any strong smelling articles, it will absorb 

their flavour ; fine teas are often spoilt by contact with 
soap, cheese, or other items of a grocer's shop. 

We would, in conclusion, repeat be sure your 
blends have some distinctive flavour ; let them always 
be the same style and always kept up to standard 
quality, so that people will learn to rely on them and 
come for them again and again ; it is thus big businesses 
are built up. 


Adulteration of tea . . 
Afternoon tea fashionable in 1763 

,/ teas, first mention of 

,/ // given by Mrs. Montague in 1718 

American Colonies attempt at taxation, 1767 
Amoy Oolong 

Appearance of blends 
Army, use of tea in .. 
Assam Broken Pekoe used in blend 


// Indian teas 

character of 

{/ Tea Estate, Marks of 








Blending tea 

cause of failure in 
lf character of water 
// chief objects in . . 

Blends to be distinctive 

to be thoroughly assimilated 
to suit taste of district . . 



11 INDEX. 


Bohea . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 44 

Bolero, tea mentioned by, 1590 .. .. .. i 

Boston harbour, tea destroyed in, 1773.. .. .. 22 

Botenkoe, tea recommended by . . . . . . 4 

Broken mixed tea, Indian . . . . . . . . 108 

// Orange Pekoe, Ceylon.. .. .. .. 122 

// Pekoe Ceylon . . . . . . . . 122 

// // Indian.. .. .. .. .. 107 

// // Souchong Ceylon .. .. .. 123 

// Souchong, Indian . . . . . . . . 108 

// Tea, Ceylon . . . . . . . . . . 123 

Bruce, Major, discovers Indian Tea . . . . . . 95 

Buying of tea in China . . . . . . . . 72 


Cachar Indian teas .. .. .. .. .. 114 

// // ,/ character of .. .. .. 116 

// H Tea Estates, Marks of .. .. .. 115 

California, tea planted in .. .. .. .. 31 

Campoi .. .. .. .. .. .. 44 

Canton Green Tea . . . . . . . . . . 90 

// Scented Orange Pekoe . . . . . . 88 

// // // // short leaf . . . . 88 

// // // // Caper .. .. .. 

Caper .. .. .. .. .. .. 45 

Capers, how scented . . . . . . . . . . 89 

Carlyle, Dr. A., alludes to afternoon teas .. .. 23 

Caucasus, tea planted in .. .. .. .. 31 

Ceylon Broken Orange Pekoe .. .. .. .. 122 

// // Pekoe .. .. .. .. 122 

// // // Souchong .. .. .. 123 

// // tea .. .. .. .. .. 123 

// Congou .. .. .. .. .. 123 



Ceylon crack estates .. .. .. .. .. 125 

// dust.. .. .. .. .. .. 123 

tt Orange Pekoe .. .. .. .. 122 

// Pekoe .. .. .. .. .. 122 

Fannings .. .. .. .. 123 

t/ ,/ Souchong .. .. .. .. 123 

principal tea estates . . . . . . . . 124 

Souchong .. .. .. .. .. 123 

tea .. .. .. .. .. .. 120 

// discovered .. .. .. .. 120 

// exports .. .. .. .. .. 121 

// // first cultivation of .. .. .. .. 120 

// .// plants .. .. .. .. .. 122 

use of .. .. .. .. .. 123 

China, early use of tea in . . . . . . . . 68 

// export from . . . . . . . . . . 70 

tea .. .. .. .. .. .. 67 

Chinese traditions respecting tea . . . . . . 67 

Chingwos . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Chittagong Indian Tea .. .. .. .. 117 

// // // character of .. .. .. 118 

// // // Estates, Marks of .. .. 117 

Classes of Java tea .. .. .. .. .. 127 

Coffee-houses, tea sold at .. .. .. .. 10 

I/ closed, 1675 .. .. .. .. 10 

Coleridge, Hartley, poem on tea . . . . . . 24 

Concluding hints . . . . . . . . . . 149 

Confucius alludes to tea . . . . . . . . 68 

Congou .. .. .. .. .. ..37,44 

// Ceylon .. .. .. .. .. 123 

// Indian . .- .. .. .. .. 108 

Congous, how divided . . . . . . . . 74 

// black leaf . . . . . . . . . . 75 

,/ Province leaf . . . . . . . . 83 

,/ red leaf . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Congreve, tea mentioned by, 1694 .. .. .. n 



Consumption of tea, increase in . . . . . . 30 

,/ home statistics . . . . . . 60 

// of Indian tea . . . . . . . . 98 

// per head statistics . . . . . . 62 

Cowper's " Task " .. .. .. .. .. 23 

Darjeeling Indian teas .. .. .. .. 113 

// // // character of .. .. .. 114 

// Estates, Marks of .. .. .. .. 113 

De Quincey, mention of tea by . . . . . . 25 

Dehra Dhoon Indian teas .. .. .. .. 112 

// Estates, Marks of .. .. .. 112 

,/ ,/ teas, character of .. .. .. 113 

Deliveries of tea statistics . . . . . . . . 60 

Dust, Indian .. .. .. .. .. 108 

Dutch East India Company . . . . . . . . 2 

Duty on tea . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 

alterations in . . . . . . 50, 51 

// t; early methods of collection . . . . 49 

,/ // first imposition of . . . . . . . . 49 


East India Company's monopoly .. .. .. 35 

// // withdrawn . . . . 48 

// ,/ sales .. .. .. 42 

Emerson, poem by . . . . . . . . 22 

England, introduction of tea into . . . . . . 5 

,/ national drink of . . . . . . 30 

Estates, principal tea, Ceylon . . . . . . . . 124 

Europe, first introduction to . . . . . . . . 2 

Export of tea from China . . . . . . . . 70 




Fannings, Indian . . . . . . . . . . 108 

Fiji, tea planted in . . . . . . . . 31 

Flowery Pekoe, Indian .. .. .. .. 106 

Foochow Scented Orange Pekoe . . . . . . 87 

Caper .. ..89 

Formosa Oolong . . . . . . 86 

Fychow Green Tea . . . . . . . . . . 90 


Garraway's advertisement . . . . . . . . 6 

Garrick a tea-drinker . . . . . . . . 20 

Green tea, consumption decreasing . . . . . . 92 

Gunpowder.. .. .. .. .. ..46,91 


Han way, Jonas, denounces tea, 1756 .. .. 17 

Hard water.. .. .. .. *34 

Hazareebaugh Indian tea .. .. IJ 7 

// // character of .. .. 117 

Estates, Marks of .. .. "7 

Hazlitt, a great tea-drinker .. .. .. 25 

Honeysuckle Congou . . . . 8 4 

Holland, tea imported from . . . . . . 34 

Hoyune Scented Caper . . . . 8 9 

Hoyunes .. .. .. 8 4 

tarry .. .. .. 8 4 

Hyson 37.46,91 

Skin . .. .. - 9 1 

Ichangs . . . . 77 

Imperial .. .. 9 1 

Imports of tea statistics . . . . 57 



India, tea growing collapse in : . . . . . 98 

Indian tea . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 



. .. .. 103 



Japan tea .. .. .. .. .. .. 126 

Java ,/ .. .. .. .. .. .. 126 

// // imported from, 1669.. .. .. .. 34 

,/ teas, classes of .. .. .. .. .. 127 

Jesuit missionaries bring information to Europe . . i 

Johnson, Dr., a great tea-drinker .. .. .. 20 

// defends tea, 1756 .. .. .. 18 

,/ // companies lorme 

3d . . 

// // consumption of 

// cultivation 


,/ // first discovered 

,/ ,/ manufacture by 


if ii ii by 


,/ Namuna kind 




,/ sorting 


,/ Broken Pekoe . . 


/, ,/ Mixed Tea 


// // Souchong 




// Dust .. 


// Fannings 


,/ Flowery Pekoe 


// Mandarin Pekoe 




Orange Pekoe . . 




,/ Dust [.. 


,/ Souchong 




Inglefield, Admiral, commends tea 

Italy, tea grown in 





Kangra Indian Tea .. .. .. .. .. 116 

,/ // // .character of .. .. .. 116 

// // Estates, Marks of .. .. .. 116 

Keemuns . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 

Kintucks . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 

Kiukiangs .. .. .. .. .. 76 

Kokew Oolong . . . . . . . . . . 87 

Kumaon Indian Teas .. .. .. .. .. 113 

,/ ,/ character of . . . . . . 113 

// // Estates, Marks of .. .. 113 

Kutoan .. .. .. .. .. .. 76 

Labelling, discrepancies in . . . . . . 78 

Lacy denounces tea . . . . . . . . . . 16 

Lapseng Souchongs . . . . . . . . . . 81 

Licences (Tea) required . . . . . . . . 49 

,/ // abolished .. .. .. .. 51 

Lo Yu writes treatise on tea in 780 . . . . . . 68 


Macao Scented Orange Pekoe . . . . . . 88 

Madras, tea imported from, 1684 . . .. .. 35 

Making of tea .. .. .. .. ..52,139 

// Chinese authority on . . . . . . 54 

Mandarin Pekoe Indian . . . . . . . . 108 

Manufacture of Black Tea in China . . . . . . 72 

Green // .. .. .. 73 

Indian Tea by hand .. .. .. 101 

// // by machinery .. .. 103 

Marks of Assam Estates .. .. .. .. in 

,/ Cachar // .. .. .. .. 115 

Chittagong Estates .. .. .. .. 117 

/, Darjeeling .. .. .. 113 

Vlll INDEX. 


Marks of Dehra Dhoon Estates .. .. .. 112 

// Hazareebaugh // .. .. .. 117 

// Kangra // .. .. .. 116 

// Kumaon // .. .. .. 113 

/, Neilgherry .. .. .. 119 

Sylhet .. .. .. 115 

// Terai f , .. .. .. 118 

// Western Dooars Estates .. .. .. 119 

Medium water .. .. .. .. .. 134 

Mcming Souchong . . . . . . . . . . 77 

Montague, Mrs., gives afternoon teas in 1718 .. .. 24 

Moyune Green Teas .. .. .. .. .. 91 


Namuna Indian Tea . . . . . . . . . . 109 

Nankin Green Tea . . . . . . . . . . 90 

Natal Tea .. .. .. .. .. .. 128 

// planted in .. .. .. .. .. 31 

Navy, use of tea in .. .. .. .. .. 29 

Neilgherry Indian Tea .. .. .. .. 119 

,/ // // character of .. .. .. 119 

// Estates, Marks of .. .. .. .. 119 

New District Congou . . . . . . . . 83 

Ning Chow . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 


Olearius, tea mentioned by, 1633 . . . . . . 3 

Oolong, Amoy . . . . . . . . . . 87 

// Formosa . . . . . . . . . . 86 

// Indian .. .. .. .. .. 109 

// Kokew .. .. .. .. .. 87 

Oonfaa .. .. .. .. .. .. 77 

Oopack .. .. .. .. .. .. 77 

Orange Pekoe, Ceylon .. .. .. .. 122 

Ouchaine Gunpowder . . . . . . . . 90 

// Scented Orange Pekoe . . . . . . 88 

INDEX. ix 


Padrae . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 

Padraes .. .. .. .. .. .. gi 

Paklins .. .. .. .. .. .. 81 

Paklums .. .. .. .. .. .. 80 

Panyongs .. .. .. .. .. .. 80 

Pecco Congous . . . . . . . . . . 80 

Peg Woffington makes Garrick's tea . . . . . . 20 

Pekoe .. .. .. 44 

// Canton, Scented Orange . . . . . . 88 

,/ Ceylon .. .. .. .. .. 122 

// // Orange .. .. .. .. .. 122 

// Dust, Ceylon .. .. .. .. .. 123 

// // Indian . . . . . . . . . . 107 

// Fannings, Ceylon . . . . . . . . 123 

// Foo Chow, Scented Orange . . . . . . 87 

// Indian . . . . . . . . . . 106 

// // Orange .. .. .. .. ., 107 

// Macao, Scented Orange . . . . . . . . 88 

// Souchong, Ceylon . . . . . . . . 123 

// // Congous .. .. .. .. 84 

// // Indian . . . . . . . . 107 

Pekoes, how scented . . . . . . . . . . '89 

Pepy's, mention of tea by, 1660 and 1667 . . . . 5 

Percival mentions tea in Ceylon . . . . . . 120 

Pickings of tea in China . . . . . . . . 71 

Ping Suey Green teas . . . . . . . . 91 

Plants, Indian tea . . . . . . . . 99 

Poem by Emerson . . . . . . . . . . 22 

lf on Tea, Hartley Coleridge . . . . . . 24 

Pope, mention of tea by .. .. .. .. 12 

Pouchong . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 

Preparation of tea, early methods of . . . . . . 69 

Price of Sound Common Congou . . . . . . 62 

Prices of tea . . . . . . 3, 8, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40 

Principal tea estates, Ceylon .. .. .. .. 124 




Rugge's "Diurnal," tea mentioned in .. .. .. 9 

Russian Ambassador declines present of tea, 1639 . . 3 

Sales, public, of tea . . . . . . . . . . 42 

Saryunes .. .. .. .. .. .. 81 

Scented Caper, Canton . . . . . . . . 88 

,/ Foo Chow . . . . . . . . 89 

Hoyune .. .. .. .. 89 

// Orange Pekoe, Canton . . . . . . 88 

// // // // short leaf . . . . 88 

// // ,/ Foo Chow ... .. .. 87 

// Macao . . . . . . 88 

,./ // // Ouchaine . . . . . . 88 

Sedley, mention of tea by, 1668 .. .. .. n 

Shantams . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 

Short, Dr., writes of tea .. .. .. .. 15 

Sicily, tea planted in . . . . . . . . . . 31 

Sigismond, Dr., tea mentioned by .. .. .. 27 

Sinchune . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 

Soft water .. .. .. .. .. .. 135 

Soliman, tea mentioned by, circa 880 . . . . . . i 

Soo Moss . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Sorting Indian tea .. .. .. .. .. 105 

Souchong .. .. .. .. .. .. 44 

// Ceylon .. .. .. .. .. 123 

Indian . . . . . . . . . . 107 

Sound Common Congou, price of . . . . . . 62 

South Russia, tea grown in .. .. .. .. 128 

Specimen blends . . . . . . . . 143 

"Spectator," tea mentioned in .. .. .. 13 



Statistics, consumption per head . . . . . . 62 

home consumption . . . . . . . . 62 

// tea deliveries . . . . . . . . 60 

// imports .. .. 57 

Straits Settlements tea . . . . . . . . 128 

Sueykut .. .. .. .. .. ... 82 

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 

Surat, tea imported from, -1685 .. .. .. 36 

Sylhet Indian teas .. .. .. .. .. 114 

// // // character of .. .. .. 116 

// // Tea Estates, Marks of .. .. .. 115 

Tea adulteration . . . . . . . . . . 50 

// allusions to, by Confucius . . . . . . 68 

// black, manufacture, in China . . . . . . 72 

,/ blending .. .. .. .. .. 131 

// cause of failure in .. .. .. 133 

,/ character of water .. .. .. 133 

,./ chief objects .. .. .. .. 133 

,/ primitive .. .. .. 131 

// buying in China . . . . . . . . . . 72 

/, Ceylon .. .. .. .. .. .. 120 

// ^ discovery of .. .. .. .. 120 

,/ ,/ exports of.. .. .. .. .. 121 

// // first cultivation of . . . . . . . . 120 

// plants .. .. .. 122 

China .. .. .. .. .. .. 67 

// Chinese traditions . . . . . . . . 67 

// commended by Admiral Inglefield . . . . 29 

Lord Wolseley . . . . . . 29 

// consumption of Green decreasing . . . . , . 92 

// // per head . . . . . . . . 62 

// statistics of . . . . . . 62 



Tea defended by Dr. Johnson, 1756 . . . . . . 18 

,/ deliveries . . . . . . . . . . 60 

// denounced .. .. .. .. .. 3, 16 

// // by John Lacy . . . . . . . . 16 

// // by John Wesley . . . . . . 17 

,, // by Jonas Hanway, 1756 . . . . 17 

// destroyed in Boston Harbour, 1773 . . . . 22 

// Dr. Short writes of .. .. .. .. 15 

// Dr. Waldsmeck's Panegyric on . . . . 4 

// duty .. .. .. .. .. 49 

// // alterations in .. .. .. ..50,51 

,/ // early methods of collection . . . . . . 49 

// // first imposition . . . . . . . . 49 

// // imposed in American Colonies, 1767 .. .. 21 

// // China in 783 . . . . . . 69 

// early use in China . . . . . 68 

// methods of preparation . . 69 

// East India Company's monopoly of 33 

// withdrawn .. 48 

,/ // sales .. 42 

,/ estates, Ceylon, principal 124 

exports from China . . 7 

fashionable .. .. 15,16,24 

first advertised, 1658 . . . . 5 

first introduced into Europe 2 


green, manufacture, in China . . . . 73 

grown in Italy . . . . I28 

(/ South Russia .. .. 128 

,/ home consumption, statistics of . . . . 62 

,/ imported from Holland . . . . 34 

,/ Java, 1669 . . 34 

lf Madras, 1684 35 

Surat, 1685 36 

imports, statistics of . . . 57 

in Army and Navy . . 2 9 

INDEX. Xlll 


Tea in Ceylon mentioned by Percival . . . . . . 120 

// increase in consumption . . . . . . . . 30 

// Indian .. .. .. .. .. .. 95 

// // companies formed . . . . . . . . 97 

// //. consumption of . . . . . . 98 

// cultivation . . . . . . . . 99 

,/ // first discovered . . . . . . . . 95 

// // manufacture by hand . . . . . . 101 

// // // by machinery . . . . . . 103 

,/ plants .. .. 99 

// sorting .. .. .. .. .. 105 

// introduction into England . . . . . . 5 

// Japan .. .. .. .. .. .. 126 

// Java .. .. .. .. .. .. 126 

/, // classes of . . . . . . . . 127 

/, leading kinds in 1730 . . . . . . . . 36 

r/ ii n J 827 44 

// licences required . . . . . . . . 49 

,/ // abolished . . . . . . . . 51 

,,, making .. .. .. .. .. .. 52, 139 

// Chinese authority on . . . . . . 54 

meetings ... . . . . . . . . 27 

mentioned by Bolero, 1590 .. ... .. i 

// Congreve, 1694 II 

n Dr. Sigismond . . . . . . 27 

// Edward Young .. .. .. 17 

// Olearius, 1633 .. .. .. 3 

// Pepy's, 1660 and 1667 .. .. 5 

// Pope, 1711 .. .. .. .. 12 

Sedley, 1668 .. .. .. n 

// Soliman, circa 880 . . . . . . i 

Waller .. .. .. .. 12 

// " English Opium Eater " (De Quincey) 

1821 .. .. .. 25 

// Rugge's "Diurnal," 1659 ' 9 

"Spectator" .. .. .. 13 



Tea mentioned by " The Task " (Cowper), 1785 . . 23 

,/ a "Treatise on Warm Beer," 1641 .. 3 

,/ Natal .. .. .. .. .. .. 128 

// obtained by barter for sage . . . . . . 3 

// picking in China .. .. .. .. 71 

,/ plant, original habitat . . . . . . . . 67 

planted in Fiji .. .. .. .. .. 31 

// // California .. .. .. .. 31 

,/ ,/ Caucasus .. .. .. .. 31 

,/ ,/ Natal.. .. .. .. .. 31 

// // Sicily.. .. .. .. .. 31 

// present of, declined by Russian Ambassador, 1639 .. 3 

// prepared as a vegetable . . . . . . . . 9 

prices of .. .. .. 35,37.38,39.40 

,/ public sales of . . . . . . . . . . 42 

// recommended by Botenkoe . . . . . . 4 

n sold at coffee-houses .. .. .. .. 10 

Straits Settlements .. .. .. .. 128 

// taster, an early . . . . . . . . . . 14 

// the national drink of England . . . . . . 30 

,/ treatise on, written by Lo Yu in 780 . . . . 68 

,/ use at Court . . . . . . . . . . 9 

,/ used by Emperor Ven Ty in 584 . . . . . . 68 

,/ Usbeck Tartars, 1633 . . . . . . 3 

Teas suitable for hard water .. .. .. .. 134 

medium water .. .. .. 134 

// soft // .. .. i35 

Temperance movement . . . . . . . 27 

Terai Indian teas .. .. .. .. "8 

character of .. .. .. "8 

Estates, Marks of .. .. .. "8 

Tetsong .. .. .. 45 

Te Tsong, Emperor of China, imposes tea duty in 783 . . 69 

Treatise on tea written by Lo Yu in 780 . . . . 68 

Twankay .. .. .. ..46,91 




Unsound tea to be avoided .. . . .. .. 150 


Ven Ty, Emperor of China, uses tea in 584 . . . . 68 


Waldsmeck, Dr., Panegyric on tea .. .. .. 4 

Waller, tea mentioned by .. ., .. .. 12 

Walpole, Horace, writes on proposed new tea duty . . 22 

Water, hard .. .. .. .. .. 134 

,/ medium .. .. .. .. .. 134 

// soft .. .. .. .. .. .. 135 

Wenchows .. .. .. .. .. .. 78 

Wesley, John, denounces tea .. .. .. .. 17 

Western Dooars Indian Tea .. .. .. .. 119 

// // // // character of .. .. 119 

// // Tea Estates, Marks of .. .. 119 

Wolseley, Lord, commends tea . . . . . . 29 


Young, Edward, mentions tea . . . . . . 17 

Young Hyson .. .. .. .. .. 91 


The "Direct" System of Trading, 

- * 

Messrs. LEWIS & Co., 

Imjmrtm & Mfarksate Itealm, 


OUPPLY TEAS flkra;/ at first-hand prices without 
any intermediate profits or expenses, thus placing 
the Provincial Dealer, who is in a position to purchase 
in wholesale quantities, on a level with the London 

The advantage of this system must be evident at once 
to every shrewd business man ; an impartial comparison 
of their offers will give some idea of the extent of the 
benefit. Samples on application. 

The appreciation of Messrs. LEWIS & Co.'s system of 
business by the Trade is shown by the position to which 
their house has attained through the thorough and 
constant co-operation with them of the best buyers 
throughout the commercial world. 

In the long series of years during which their direct 
system has been before the Trade, they have gathered 
around them a circle of clients, consisting of the leading 
independent Tea Dealers, which for extent and influence 
is unrivalled. 


LEWIS & Co., 

% Tea Importers, Tea Exporters, 

Wholesale Dealers in Tea, 
Tea Blenders, Tea Packers. 


52 & 53, Crutched Friars, London, E.C, 



MARKET - -\ See following pages. 




Import Department. 

LEWIS & Co. are direct Shippers 
from all the Tea producing countries, 
and offer their consignments direct to 
the Trade at first-hand prices, saving 
all intermediate profits, expenses and 

Export Department. 

LEWIS & Co. ship Teas to all parts 
of the globe Originals, Blends and 
Packets at the closest margins. 

LEWIS & Co., 


Market Department. 

LEWIS & Co. buy or sell Teas 
on the London Market, in Public Sale 
or otherwise, on closest commission 

They will be pleased to give Whole- 
sale Buyers terms and particulars, on 


LEWIS & Co., 



Blending Department. 

SPECIAL BLENDS are scientifically 
prepared under the direct personal 
supervision of the author of 


in LEWIS & Co.'s Spacious Ware- 
houses, fitted with the most modern 


LEWIS & Co., 



Packets Department. 

In this department LEWIS & Co. 
have recently acquired the celebrated 
"VENOYA," the most deservedly 
popular high-class packet Tea in the 
trade, and are open to appoint Agents 
in the few districts not already 
occupied. Particulars on application. 

LEWIS & Co. are also proprietors 
of the following brands :- 




and packers of the following world- 



&c., &c., &c. 

LEWIS & Co., 





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Eastcheap Buildings, Eastcheap, LONDON, E.G. 


WHITE & PIKE, Limited, 


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Narrow Wine Street, BRISTOL, 

ESTABLISHED 1820. Address in full. 


Telegraphic Address "PLUMBUM, LONDON." Telephone No. 2202. 






PARIS, 1889. 

LONDON, 1884. 




Tea Package and Tea Lead 

9, Graeeehureh Street, LONDON, B.C. 

TlTflAfbct (Normandy Wharf, ROTHERHITHE, S.E. 

UilCUht> iLead Smelting Works, ST. HELENS, LANGS. 
LIVERPOOL OFFICE 9, Orange Street. 

QUIRK, BARTON & Co. have pleasure in drawing attention to their 
used for repacking Tea in i oz., 2oz., i Ib., $ Ib. and i Ib. Packets 
and upwards. 

Average Size. 

For Ib. size, 10" by 7" 


For % Ib. size, 12" by 9" 


For i Ib. size, 15" by n" 



The Lead can, however, be supplied to any other required site. 


These are substantially made of desiccated inodorous wood, and lined with 
tea lead. Any designs or marks lithographed in one or more colours. To hold 
i Ib., 61bs., iolbs., i2lbs., 2olbs. Any size to order. Special low quotations for 


nbetance or Weight Sheets per cwt. of 
3e superficial foot. sizes given. 

2 OZS. 

about 1840 


















, 348 

Made up ready for use in \ Ib., J Ib. & i Ib. sizes. Also Moulds for packing same. 
Patent Barrel Packages. Tin-foil from 6d. per Ib., according to gauge. 

SAMPLE SHEETS and PRICE LISTS, with full particulars, sent free 
on application. 






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" I beg to pay a high tribute to The Grocers' Journal, having derived from it 
much good practical advice of great benefit to me in trade. 

" I heartily wish your Journal every success, as it is of great use and value to 
me, and I consider it the best penny weekly that is in circulation. 



Sir, Please supply me with a copy of "THE GROCERS' JOURNAL" 
weekly until further notice. 

Name ........ ........................................................... _ 


Three Months, 1/8. Six Months, 3/3. Twelve Months, 6/6. 

W. REDMAIHE, 40, Whitefriars Street, Fleet Street, E.C. 


Advertising Clock Company, 



Signs, &c. 



36 in. 

Head Office for Great Britain and Ireland 


, E.C. 

Cable Addi 



W. Q. B. SWEET. 




(Beneral Stationers, 

Lithographic and Letterpress Printers, 


Are prepared to treat with large consumers for the manufacture 
and supply of their requirements in the above branches. 



Illuminations for Testimonials, Presentations, &c., 

In the most economical or elaborate style. 

Special facilities for the rapid and accurate production 

of Price Currents, Books, Catalogues, Prospectuses 

and Circulars of every description. 

strong odourless and specially made to preserve the fragrance of Tea. 

ENVELOPES. Send for a set of Samples of Special Cheap 

lines in Envelopes various sizes and Dualities, with or without 

Name and Address printed on Flap Post Free. 

50, Lombard Street, & 96-97, Fenchurch Street, E.G.